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76 Cards in this Set

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Anti-Semitism
Popular term for prejudice against or persecution of Jews
Nationalism
1) Desire of a group of people to preserve or obtain common statehood; (2) ideology stressing loyalty to the nation-state or seeking independence of a national group
Haskalah
Era of Jewish enlightenment during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
Pogrom
Organized massacre of Jews
Aliya
Jewish immigration to Israel
Olim
Jewish immigrants to Israel
Kibbutz
Jewish settlement in Israel, initially agricultural, now mainly industrial, in which most property is collectively owned
Tel Aviv
Coastal city and commercial center in Israel
Jewish National Fund
Zionist land-purchasing and development agency in Palestine/ Israel, founded in 1901
Arab Legion
Former name of the army of Transjordan (and Jordan)
Revisionist Party
Right-wing Zionist movement founded by Jabotinsky
Hajj Amin al-Husayni
Mufti of Jerusalem and early Palestinian nationalist leader
Jewish Agency
Organization set up under the Palestine mandate to work with Britain toward the Jewish national home; later charged with aiding Jewish immigration and absorption into Israel
Haganah
Jewish Agency's army in Palestine ( 1920-1948)
Passfield White Paper
British official report blaming both Jews and Arabs for the 1929 Wailing Wall riots in Palestine
Peel Commission
British committee that visited Palestine in 1937 and first recommended partition into Jewish and Arab states
David Ben-Gurion
Zionist pioneer, writer, politician, and defense and prime minister of Israel (1948-1953 and 1955-1963)
Biltmore Program
American Zionist resolution in 1942 openly demanding a Jewish state in Palestine
Stern Gang Irgun
Right-wing Zionist guerrilla group, commanded by Begin and active up to 1948
Folke Bernadotte
Swedish UN mediator, murdered during the 1948 Palestine war
Palestinian
Inhabitant of Palestine; now the term used for Arabs who live in Palestine, came from there, or descend from emigrants from that land
United Nations Relief and Works Agency
International organization providing aid and education to Palestinian refugees since 1949
Biqa' Valley
Predominantly Shi'i valley in eastern Lebanon
Nationalist Party
Syria's main party after World War II
Ba'th Party
Arab nationalist and socialist party ruling Syria since the 1960s and Iraq (1968-2003)
Rashid Ali al-Gaylani
Leader of the 1941 Arab nationalist government in Iraq, overthrown by the British
Positive Neutralism
Nasir's policy of not siding with either the communist countries or the West but seeking to reconcile the two blocs
Ashkenazim
Jews whose recent ancestors came from Eastern or Central Europe
Mizrachim
Jews whose ancestors came from Spain, Portugal, or the Muslim world; sometimes called Sephardim.
Knesset
Israel's unicameral legislature
Mapai Party
Israel's moderate labor party
Likud Party
Coalition of Israel's right-wing parties, in power from 1977 to 1984, in coalition with Labor ( 1984-1990) and with the religious parties ( 1990-1992 and 1996-)
National Religious Party
Largest party of observant Jews in Israel
Fidaiyin
Commandos, or people who sacrifice themselves for a cause, often applied to Palestinians fighting against Israel or to militant Shi'is
Eilat
Israel's port on the Gulf of Aqaba
Aswan
(1) City in Upper Egypt; (2) site of the High Dam, built for Egypt by the USSR ( 1958-1970)
Port Said
Egyptian city at which the Suez Canal meets the Mediterranean
Yasir Arafat
Palestinian Arab nationalist, founder of al-Fatah, PLO chairman, and Palestinian Authority’s president (1996-2004)
al-Fatah
Palestinian guerrilla group founded by Yasir Arafat
Moshe Dayan
Israeli general and political leader ( 1915-1981)
Bar Lev Line
Israel's defense line east of the Suez Canal breached by Egypt in October 1973
War of Attrition
Artillery and air struggle between Egypt and Israel (1969-1970)
Anwar Sadat
President of Egypt ( 1970-1981)
Shatt al-Arab
Confluence of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, contested in Iran-Iraq War
Golda Meir
Israel's prime minister ( 1969-1974)
Saddam Husayn
Iraq's president ( 1979-), who began the Iran-Iraq War ( 1980-1988) and invaded Kuwait in 1990, leading to Operation Desert Storm in 1991
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
a group formed in 1960 to maintain a minimum price for oil
Menachem Begin
Leader of Israel's right-wing Likud coalition and prime minister (1977-1983)
Hafiz al-Asad
President of Syria ( 1970-2000); his son, Bashar (ba_SHAR) [of same surname] succeeded him
Separation-of-Forces Agreement
Kissinger's formula to secure Israel's withdrawal from some lands taken in the October War
Camp David Accords
(2) site of intensive peace talks by Begin, Carter, and Sadat in September 1978; (3) adjective applied to the Egyptian-Israeli accords or to the 1979 peace treaty
Phalanges
Paramilitary organization dedicated to preserving Maronite Christian dominance in Lebanon
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
Leader of Iranian revolution ( 1978-1979) and faqih ( 1979-1989)
Revolutionary Guards
Iranian-organized Islamic guerrilla movement active in various Middle Eastern countries
Iran-Iraq War
Ideological and territorial conflict between Iran and Iraq ( 1980-1988)
Iran-Contra Affair
Reagan administration's arms sales to Iran to secure release of American hostages in Lebanon and donation of the proceeds to aid Contra insurgents in Nicaragua
Husni Mubarak
Egypt's president ( 1981-)
Gush Emunim
Bloc of the Faithful; group of religiously observant Israeli settlers on the West Bank (Militant)
Hizballah
Religious Shi'i party in Lebanon
Sabra & Shatila
Beirut refugee camps, site of 1982 massacre of Palestinians
al-Qa'ida
Network of militant Islamic organizations, led by Osama bin Laden
Desert Shield
U.S. name for the multinational military buildup in Saudi Arabia opposing Iraq's occupation of Kuwait
Desert Storm
U.S. name for the multinational operation that attacked Iraq and drove its troops from Kuwait in 1991
Mostaz'afan
People who have been dispossessed as a result of westernizing policies
Intifada
Palestinian uprising against Israeli occupation ( 1987-1990)
Hamas
Palestinian Islamist group
Hariri, Rafik
Mountain city in western Arabia, near Mecca; site of 1989 conference that provided for restructuring Lebanese politics
Osama Bin Laden
Leader of al-Qa’ida, originally from Saudi Arabia, operating in Afghanistan until 2001
Yitzhak Rabin
Israeli prime minister ( 1974-1977 and 1992-1995)
Palestine Authority
Political organization set up by Oslo I agreement to administer areas relinquished by Israel to the Palestinians.
Ariel Sharon
Israeli general and war minister during Israel's 1982 invasion of Lebanon
Kurdish Workers Party
Kurdish independence movement that rebelled in SE Turkey (1984-1999).
Ahmad Chalabi
Leader of Iraqi National Congress, who advocated US invasion of Iraq
Iraqi National Congress
Organization, led by Ahmad Chalabi, which advocated US invasion of Iraq in 2003 to overthrow Saddam Husayn's government.
Road Map
Plan for Israeli-Palestinian peace, to be achieved in stages, prepared in 2002 by George W. Bush with European Union, Russia, and the UN, but not accepted by Israel
Mahmud Abbas
Palestinian prime minister (2003) and president (2005-)