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68 Cards in this Set

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Koprulu
Family of the Ottoman Vezirs
Bosporus
Straits Connecting the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara
Dardanelles
Straits connecting the Aegean to the Sea of Marmara
Pan-Slavism
Movement to unite all the Slavs, Esp under Russian Leadershiip
Crimean War
Conflict among powers with imperial interests in the Middle East (britain france, ottomans, def russia)
Russo-Turkish War
Conflict between Russia and the Ottoman Empire in which the latter lost land in Anatolia and the Balkans
Treaty of San Stefano
Abortive Russo-Turkish treaty in Feb 1878 that would have strengthened russia's position in the Balkans
Treaty of Berlin
Peace settlement of the Russo-Turkish War, signed in aug of 1878 and replacing the san stefano treaty
Suez Canal
Man made canal between the Mediterranean and Red seas
Circassian
Native of the Caucus region of the Black Sea
Fertile Crescent
Modern term for the lands extending from the eastern Mediteranean via Syria and Mesopotamia, to the gulf
Hijaz
Mountainous area of western arabia
Selim III
Ottoman reforming sultan at the end of the 1700s
Abdulmejid I
Ottoman Sultan 1839-1861
Reshid, Mustafa
Westernizing ottoman reformer in the early tanzimat era
Pan-Islam
Idea or movement calling for unity of all Muslims, promoted by some Ottoman sultans and some muslim leaders
Qajar Dynasty
Family of Turkic origin ruling Persia
Tehran
Capital of Persia/Iran since 1794
Pan-Arabism
Movement to unite all the arabs in one state
Khedive
Title of egypt's viceroy
al-afghani, jamal al-din?
Influential pan-islamic agitator and reformer
National Party
Egyptian movement seeking independe nce from foreign control, led by Urabi in 1881-1882 and by Mustafa Kamil in 1895-1908
Cromer, Lord
British consul in Egypt, a financial reformer who was resented by Egyptian nationalists
Abbas II
Egypt's viceroy 1892-1914
Ottomanism
Identification with the Ottoman Empire, encouraged bye early westernizers
Abdulhamid II
Ottoman sultan who advocated pan-islam and opposed constitutional government
Enver
Young Turk revolutionary leader
Talat
Most influential young Turk leader
Jemal
Youg Turk leader and governor of Syria (1915-1918)
Pan-Turanism
Movement to unite all peoples speaking Turkic languages
Nasiruddin, Shah
Qajar ruler (1848-1896)
Majlis
Iran's bicameral legislature
Syrian Protestant College
American University of Beirut up to 1920
Al-Kawakibi
Arab nationalist writer
Ottoman Decentralization Party
liberal political movement favored by modern arab nationalists before WWI
Al-Ahd
Nationalist secret society of Arab officers in the Ottoman army before and during WWI
Berlin-to-Bagdad Railway
Projected rail line that, if completed, would have enhanced Germany's power int eh Ottoman Empire before WWI
Abdallah (son of Husayn)
Participant in Arab Revolt and amir of Transjordan
Kitchener, Lord
Commander of Anglo-Egyptian army that retook the Sudan, who later became British consul-general in egypt
McMahon, Henry
British high commissioner in Egypt, who initiated the Husayn-McMahon correspondance
Faysal I (son of Husayn)
King of Saudi Arabia (1964-1975)
Lawrence, T. E.
AKA lawrence of arabia, British intelligence officer who aided the Arab Revolt; gifted writer and advocate of Arab nationalism
Chaim Weizmann
British Zionist leader who helped to obtain the Balfour Declaration; Israel's first president
Zionist
believer in zionism
Zionism
Nationalist ideology stressing solidarity of the Jewish people. Movement to create or maintain a Jewish state, especially in palestine/israel
Fourteen Points
President wilson's plan to settle issues that had caused WWI, calling for self determination of all peoples
San Remo Conference
1920 conference in which Britain and France decided on the mandate borders
Mandate
created the borders of palastine
Ibn Sa'ud
Arab leader who conquered most of the Arabian Peninsula between 1902 adn 1930 and ruler of saudi arabia (1932-1953), also called Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd at-Rahman
Sa'ud Dynasty
Arab family of Najd suporting Wahhabi doctrines since the rain of Muhammad ibn Sa'ud (1746-1765; rulers of most of the arabian peninsula durring the twentieth century
Mudros Armistace
Signified the formal surrender of the Ottomans to the allies in WWI (oct 1918)
Eleutherios, Venizelos
Greek prime minister during the invasion of anatolia and strong advocate of a greater Greece
Grand National Assembly
Representative legislature of the Turkish republic
Lausanne, Treaty of
treaty between turkey and its allies in WWI, replecing the treaty of sevres
Republican People's Party
Liberal Turkish party founded by Kemal Ataturk in 1923
Welfare Party
Islamist party that won a plurality of seats in Turkey's 1995 elections and led a coalition government until 1997
Anglo Persian Oil Company
Firm holding petroleum exploration, drilling, and refining rights to iran; renamed anglo-iranian oil company; nationalized by Mosaddiq in 1951
Trans-Iranian Railway
Line linking the Caspian Sea nad the Gulf, built under Reza Shah
Mosaddiq, Mohammad
Iranian nationalist prime minister who nationalzed the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company and was later ousted i a coub engineered by the shah, the british, and the CIA
White Revolution
Broad reform program proclaimed by Iran's shah in 1963
SAVAK
Iran's secret police under Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi
Wahhabi
Puritanical Muslim sect founded by Muhhamad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, now dominant in Saudi Arabia
Ibn Sa'ud
Arab leader who conquered most of the Arabian peninsula between 1902 and 1930 and ruler of Saudi Arabia
Aramco
Arabian American oil company, which developed the petroleum industry in Saudi arabia
Zaghlul, Sa'ud
Egyptian nationalist leader
Wafd
Unofficial Egyption delegation to the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Egypts main nationalist party from 1923 to 1952, revived in 1978
Muslim Brothers
Political group, strong in egypt and in several other Arab countries, calling for an Islamic political and social system and opposing Western power and cultural influences
Arab League
Arab states' political association, founded in 1945