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93 Cards in this Set

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Abbas I, Shah
Safavid ruler ( 1587-1629)
Abbasid Dynasty
Arab family descended from Abbas, Muhammad's uncle, that ruled from Baghdad over parts of the Muslim world ( 750-1258)
Abu-Bakr
First caliph (632-634), who put down tribal revolts and began conquests outside Arabian Peninsula
Abu-Talib
Muhammad's uncle and protector (d. 619)
Alawi
Offshoot of Shi'i Islam prevalent in part of northern Syria
Ali
Fourth of the early caliphs ( 656-661), regarded by Shi'i Muslims as the first imam (leader) after Muhammad
Arab
1) Native speaker of Arabic; (2) person who identifies with Arabic cultural tradition; (3) inhabitant of Arabia; (4) citizen of a country in which the predominant language and culture are Arabic; (5) camel nomad
Arabic
(1) Semitic language spoken by Arabs; (2) pertaining to the culture of Arabs
Arian
Pertaining to the belief of some early Christians that Jesus Christ was human, not of the same substance as God the Father
Aryan
Pertaining to the Indo-European language family (often used in juxtaposition with the term Semitic)
Assyrian
Pertaining to Nestorian Christians in Syria, Iraq, and Iran
Ayatollah
Title given to respected Shi'i legal experts
Baghdad
Capital of Iraq, seat of Abbasids ( 762-1258)
Bedouin
Arab camel nomad(s)
Berber
Native inhabitant of parts of North Africa
Byzantine Empire
Roman Empire of the East ( 330-1453), having its capital at Constantinople and professing Greek Orthodox Christianity
Cairo
Capital of Egypt, founded by the Fatimids ( 969)
Caliph
Successor to Muhammad as head of the ummah
Capitulations
System by which Muslim rulers allowed extraterritorial immunity from local laws and taxes to subjects of Western countries
Chalecedon
Site of 451 Christian council at which the Orthodox bishops condemned the Monophysite view of Christ's nature
Constantine
Roman emperor ( 306-337) who converted to Christianity
Cordoba
Spanish city, capital of the later Umayyads ( 756-1030)
Divian
(1) List of Arab troops entitled to share booty during early conquests; (2) council of ministers; (3) collection of poems. The Persian and Turkish word is divan
Dome of the Rock
Muslim shrine in Jerusalem, built in 692 on site of Jewish Temple; site of Abraham's sacrifice and of Muhammad's miraculous night journey
Druze
Pertaining to the secret religion practiced by some Arabs in Syria, Lebanon, and Israel and founded by Shaykh Darazi, who preached that the Fatimid caliph al-Hakim was the last of a series of emanations from God
Fatima
Muhammad's daughter, who married Ali
Fiqh
The science of Islamic law (jurisprudence)
Ghazi
Muslim border warrior
Greek Orthodox
Pertaining to the branch of Christianity that accepts the spiritual authority of the Constantinople patriarch and espouses the Christological doctrines adopted at the Nicaea ( 325) and Chalcedon ( 451) church councils
Hadith
A statement, documented by a chain of reliable witnesses, concerning a saying or action of Muhammad or an action by one of his companions that he approved, hence an authoritative source of the Shari'ah
Hajj
Muslim rite of pilgrimage to Mecca, or (with a lengthened vowel) a Muslim who has completed the pilgrimage rites
Hashimite
(1) Member of the family descended from Hashim; (2) supporter of an extremist mawali Shi'i sect in late Umayyad times;
Hebrew
Semitic language of ancient and modern Israel
Husayn
Younger son of Ali and Fatimah, killed in an anti-Umayyad revolt at Karbala ( 680), hence a martyr for Shi'i Muslims;
Ibn Rushd
Muslim philosopher (d. 1198); known as Averroës in Latin
Ijtihad
Use of reasoning to determine a specific rule in Islamic law
Imam
1) Muslim religious or political leader; (2) one of the succession of leaders, beginning with Ali, viewed by Shi'is as legitimate; (3) leader of Muslim congregational worship
Isma'ili
Pertaining to Seven-Imam Shi'ism
Janissary
Christian conscript foot soldier in the Ottoman army, converted to Islam and trained to use firearms
Jihad
(1) Defense of Islam against attackers; (2) Muslim struggle against evil within oneself, one's associates, and the ummah; (3) name of several Islamist groups
Jinn
Invisible creatures living on earth, capable of doing good or harm
Jizya
Per capita tax paid by non-Muslim males living under Muslim rule up to the nineteenth century
Ka'ba
Muslim shrine in Mecca housing the Black Stone, serving as the focal point for the hajj, and setting the direction for Muslim worship
Karbala
Iraqi city, site of Husayn's uprising and martyrdom (680); since then a Shi'l pilgrimage center
Khadija
Muhammad's first wife (d. 619)
Kizilbash
Shi'i Turks, especially Safavid horse soldiers
Kerd
Member of linguistic-cultural group concentrated in southeastern Turkey, northern Iraq, northwestern Iran, and parts of Syria
Madhhab
Sunni legal rite or school
Madrassa
Muslim school, especially for law
Manzidert, Battle of
Seljuk victory over the Byzantines ( 1071)
Maronite
Pertaining to a Christian sect, mainly in northern Lebanon, whose distinguishing belief is that Christ contained two natures within one will and which has been in communion with the Roman Catholic Church since the Crusades
Mawla
(1) Client member of an Arab tribe, entitled to protection but not all membership privileges; (2) a non-Arab convert to Islam during the early Arab conquests
Mecca
Birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad and chief commercial and pilgrimage center of western Arabia
Medina
Northwest Arabian farming oasis, formerly Yathrib, to which Muhammad and his followers went in 622
Mehmet II
Ottoman sultan ( 1451-1481), conqueror of Constantinople
Mollah
Persian Muslim teacher
Mosque
Place of communal worship for Muslims
Mufti
(1) Sunni Muslim legal consultant; (2) in modern times, leader of the ulama in a Sunni Muslim state
Muhtasib
Muslim market inspector
Mujtahid
Learned Muslim who interprets the Shari'ah, especially in Shi'i jurisprudence
Muslim
(1) A person who submits to God's will; (2) anyone who believes that God revealed the Quran to Muhammad
Najaf
Iraqi city where Ali was assassinated (661), hence a Shi'i pilgrimage center
Nicea
Northwest Anatolian city, site of the Christian church council in 325 that accepted the Trinitarian view of the nature of God: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit
Osman I
Ottoman sultan (ca. 1280-1326)
Persia
Former name for Iran
Qadi
Muslim judge
Quran
The collection of revelations that Muslims believe God vouchsafed to Muhammad via Gabriel, and one of the main sources of Islamic law, literature, and culture; also known as the Koran
Ramadan
Month of the Arabic calendar during which Muslims refrain from eating, drinking, and sexual intercourse from daybreak to sunset, commemorating first revelations of the Quran to Muhammad
Re'aya
Member(s) of the Ottoman subject class
Rum
(1) Arabic, Persian, and Turkish word for Anatolia; (2) collective term for Greek Orthodox Christians
Salah al-Din
Arabic name for a Kurdish military adventurer who took Egypt over from the Fatimids and Syria from the Zengids, defeated the Crusaders in 1187, and regained Jerusalem for Islam but failed to expel the Crusaders from Acre; also known as Saladin (r. 1171-1192)
Samarqand
Major city in Transoxiana
Semitic
Pertaining to a subgroup of Asian languages, including Arabic and Hebrew, having consonantal writing systems, inflected grammars, and structured morphologies, or to a speaker of one of these languages
Shayk al-Islam
Chief Ottoman legal and religious officer, appointed by the sultan
Shaytan
Satan, or the devil, in Muslim belief
Shi'i
Muslim who believes that Muhammad's leadership of the ummah was bequeathed to Ali, to whom special legislative powers and spiritual knowledge were vouchsafed
Sipahi
Ottoman horse soldier supported by a timar
Suleyman the Magnificent
Ottoman sultan ( 1520-1566) Empire reached its peak
Sunna
The sayings and actions of Muhammad regarding correct Muslim belief or behavior; hence, next to the Quran, the most important source of Muslim law
Sunni
1) A Muslim who accepts the legitimacy of the caliphs who succeeded Muhammad and adheres to one of the legal rites developed in the early caliphal period; (2) careful observer of Muhammad's sunnah
Turkish
Pertaining to the language and culture of the Turks
Ulama
Muslim scholars and jurists
Umar
Second of the Rashidun caliphs ( 634-644), leader of the early Arab conquests
Umayyad Dynasty
Clan of the Quraysh tribe that ruled in Damascus ( 661-750) and in Cordoba ( 756-1030)
Umma
The political, social, and spiritual community of Muslims
Uniat Catholics
Christians of various Middle Eastern rites who are in communion with the Roman Catholic Church
Vizier
Government minister in a Muslim state; wazir in Arabic
Waqf
Muslim endowment of land or other property, usually established for a beneficent or pious purpose
Zaydi Shi'i
Muslim who believes that Zayd bequeathed his ummah leadership to designated successors
Zoroastrianism
Pre-Islamic Persian religion popularized in the sixth century B.C.E. by Zoroaster, preaching the existence of a Supreme Deity and of a cosmic struggle between Good and Evil
Ishmael
Mythic ancestor of the Arabs
Islam
The religion, now prevalent in the Middle East and many other parts of Asia and Africa, believing in one God revealed to a series of prophets, ending with Muhammad, to whom the Quran was entrusted
Quraysh
Leading tribe of northwest Arabia, especially Mecca