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22 Cards in this Set

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500-565 Byzantine

Procopius of Caesarea was a prominent Byzantine scholar of the family Procopius. He is commonly held to be the last major ancient historian.
450-527 Byzantine

Flavius Iustinus (c. 450–August 1, 527), known in English as Justin I, was an Eastern Roman Emperor (518–527) of the Justinian Dynasty, who rose through the ranks of the army of the Byzantine Empire and ultimately became its emperor, in spite of the fact he was illiterate and almost 70 years old at the time of accession. His reign is significant for the founding of a dynasty that included his eminent nephew Justinian I and laws that de-emphasized the influence of the old Byzantine nobility.
425-491 Byzantine

Flavius Zeno (c. 425 -491), Eastern Roman Emperor (February 9, 474 - April 9, 491)
435–493 Byzantine

Odoacer (435–493) was King of Italy (476-493), and deposed the last Western Roman Emperor. Liked Germans. Odoacer raised an Italic-Germanic army with whom he defeated the Vandals in Sicily and conquered the whole island by 477. In 480, Odoacer and his Germanic Italic army conquered all of ancient Dalmatia. He made pacts with the Visigoths and Franks and joined them in battle against Burgundians, Alamanni and Saxons.
454-526 Byzantine

Theodoric the Great
Theodoric the Great (454 - August 30, 526) came after Odoacer. Brought peace and wealth to Italy
around 530s Byzantine

Hagia Sophia
Built by Justinian. Hagia Sophia, i.e. (the Church of) Holy Wisdom, now known as the Ayasofya Museum, is a former Eastern Orthodox church converted to a mosque in 1453, converted into a museum in 1935, in the Turkish city of Istanbul. It is universally acknowledged as one of the greatest buildings of the world and sometimes considered the Eighth Wonder of the World. Its conquest by the Ottomans at the fall of Constantinople is considered one of the great tragedies of Christianity by the Greek Orthodox faithful.
A Hippodrome (Gr. from hippos, horse, and dromos, race, course) was a course provided by the Greeks for horse racing and chariot racing. Some present-day horse racing tracks are also called hippodromes, for example the Central Moscow Hippodrome.
396–454 Byzantine

Flavius Aëtius or simply Aetius, (c. 396–454), was a Roman general of the closing period of the Western Roman Empire.His victory over Attila the Hun guarantees him, as Edward Gibbon states, immortality as "the man universally celebrated as the terror of Barbarians and the support of the Republic" of Rome.
In 454 Aëtius, whose son had married a daughter of the emperor, was treacherously murdered by Valentinian. On March 16 of the following year, however, the emperor himself was assassinated in Rome, by two of the barbarian followers of Aëtius.
424 -455 Byzantine

Valentinian III
Western Roman Emperor (424-455).Valentinian not merely lacked the ability to govern the empire in a time of crisis, but aggravated its dangers by his self-indulgence and vindictiveness. The burden of taxation became more and more intolerable as the power of Rome decreased, and the loyalty of its remaining provinces was seriously impaired in consequence.In 454 Aëtius, whose son had married a daughter of the emperor, was treacherously murdered by Valentinian. On March 16 of the following year, however, the emperor himself was assassinated in Rome, by two of the barbarian followers of Aëtius.
Berbers - people
The Berbers (also called Amazigh people or Imazighen, "free men", singular Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to Northwest Africa, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. In actuality, Berber is a generic name given to numerous heterogeneous ethnic groups that share similar cultural, political, and economic practices
Battle of the Zab
The Battle of the Zab took place on the banks of the Great Zab river in what is now Iraq on January 25, 750. It spelt the end of the Ummayyad Caliphate and the rise of the Abbasids, a dynasty that would last (under various influences and with varying power) until the 13th century. A serious rebellion had broken out in 747 against the Umayyad dynasty, who ruled much of the Middle East from 661 to 750. The main factor which incited this rebellion was that to the outlying peoples of the Caliphate, the Umayyads (based in Damascus) seemed distant, and the governors they appointed to rule were essentially corrupt and obsessed only with their own gain. Equally, the Umayyads could claim no direct descent from Muhammed, however the Abbasids could make such a claim — a fact they played upon greatly during the revolution, although not specifying until the revolution had been won that they were in fact descended from Muhammad's pagan uncle - Abbadid revolt
Damascus is the largest city and capital of Syria. it is thought to be one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world (more under: ancient history.Damascus was conquered by the Caliph Umar I in 636. Immediately thereafter, the city's power and prestige reached its peak when it became the capital of the Umayyad Empire, which extended from Spain to India from 661 to 750. In 744, the last Umayyad caliph, Marwan II, moved the capital to Harran in the Jazira,[1] and Damascus was never to regain the political prominence it had held in that period.
Muslim expansion 635-650
Damascus 635
Jerusalem taken 637 w/o blood
Egypt - 642
Persia - 650
Abu Bakr
Abū Bakr(c. 573–August 23, was the first Muslim ruler after the Prophet Muhammad (632–634). While Sunnis regard him as his rightful successor (caliph), chosen by the people, indeed, the first of four righteous Caliphs (Rashidun), the Shi'a insist that he violated Muhammad's direct orders
634– 644
He was a companion of the Prophet Muhammad and became the second Caliph (634 – 644) following the death of Abu Bakr, the first Caliph.
Al Razi
Razi was a versatile Persian physician, philosopher, and scholar who made fundamental and enduring contributions to the fields of medicine, alchemy, and philosophy, recorded in over 184 books and articles in various fields of science. He was well versed in Greek medical knowledge and added substantially to it from his own observations. As an alchemist, Razi is credited with the discovery of sulfuric acid, the "work horse" of modern chemistry and chemical engineering. He also discovered ethanol and its refinement and use in medicine. He was unquestionably one of the greatest thinkers of the Islamic World, and had an enormous influence on European science and medicine.
668 - 715 (first wave)
Al-Walid (668 - 715) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 705 - 715. He continued the expansion of the Islamic empire Al-Walid himself continued the effective rule that was characteristic of his father, he developed a welfare system, built hospitals, educational institutions and measures for the appreciation of art. Al-Walid himself was an enthusiast of architecture and he repaired and refurbished Masjid al Nabawi in Medina
1444 - 1446
Mehmet II
Mehmed II was first the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire he conquered Constantinople, bringing an end to the Byzantine Empire.
Bedouins (arabia 600 AD)
Bedouin a generic name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western Desert, Sinai, and Negev to of the Arabian desert. It is occasionally used to refer to non-Arab groups as well, notably the Beja of the African coast of the Red Sea.
Quraysh was the dominant tribe of Mecca. It was both the tribe to which the Islamic prophet Muhammad belonged and was his chief support in alliance with other tribes of Arabia during Muhammad's era.
Uthmān is regarded by Sunni Muslims as the third of the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs of Islam. He reigned from 644 until 656.
Yazid (vs Husayn)
Yazid was first opposed by the grandson of the prophet Muhammad, Husayn bin Ali. Husayn was the son of the assassinated former caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib. His older brother, Hasan ibn Ali, had claimed the caliphate as well. Husayn, as a descendant of Muhammad, had a strong claim to the caliphate in the eyes of believing Muslims