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81 Cards in this Set

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378
The Visigoths
The Visigoths, also known as the Goths, were a barbaric tribe. Living on the delta of the Danube River, their kingdom was inherited by Alaric I. They were pushed west by attacks from the Huns.They won the Battle of Adrianople August 9, 378
378
The Battle of Adrianople
The Battle of Adrianople, 378 CE, marked the beginning of the end for the Roman Empire. Emperor Valens marched out from Constantinople with an army of 20,000 cavalry and 40,000 infantry and immediately engaged 50,000 Gothic footmen. The battle was going well for the Romans until a Gothic cavalry force numbering 50,000 arrived and routed the Roman cav, leaving the infantry defenseless. Considered one of the worst defeats in Roman history - casulties numbered 40,000, including Valens.And so the Battle of Adrianople was a key moment in world history, where power shifted. The empire continued on for some time but the tremendous losses suffered at this battle were never recovered. Roman army was no longer the deadly machine it had been, discipline and morale were no longer as good, Valens' leadership was bad.
325, 381
Nicene Creed
We believe in one God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible. The Nicene Creed, Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed or Icon/Symbol of the Faith, is the most widespread Christian statement of faith. The original Nicene Creed was first adopted in 325 at the First Council of Nicaea. The second Ecumenical Council in 381 added the section that follows the words "We believe in the Holy Spirit" (without the words "and the son");[2] hence the name "Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed", referring to the Creed as it was after the modification in Constantinople. This is the version still used by the Eastern Orthodox Church and by Greek Catholic Churches.
347-395
Emperor from 379
Theodosius
Flavius Theodosius (347-395), also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from 379 until his death. In August 378 the Eastern Roman emperor, Valens, was overwhelmed and killed at Adrianople by invading Goths. The Western emperor, Gratian, thereupon recalled Theodosius from retirement and in January 379 made him joint emperor with command over the East.
Reuniting the east and west fractions of the empire, Theodosius was the last emperor of both the Eastern and Western Roman Empire. After his death, the two parts split permanently.
--Known for making Christianity the official state religion of the Roman Empire. In the 4th century, the Christian Church in the Roman Empire was wracked with controversy over the nature of the Trinity. Theodosius was a devoted persecutor of Christian heresies, and in 391 he officially closed all the empire's temples and forbade the practice of all pagan cults.
396-408
2. FALL OF ROME Timeline

from the death of Theodosius to the Visigoth sack of Rome
-396: --Visigothic departure Following Theodosius' death, Alaric takes Visigoths out of Balkans, going west.
-401-403: --Visigoth incursions into Italy Attack on northern Italy. Beaten back by Stilicho at Pollenza (402).
-406:-- Large-scale Barbarian invasion along Rhine Rhadagaesius leads great Barbarian army dominated by Vandals, and including Alans, Suevis, and Burgundians, across the frozen Rhine at Mainz. The Barbarians attack cities and agricultural areas in Gaul, forcing the indigenous population into the hills.
-408:-- Visigoths return to Italy Alaric, seeing Stilicho occupied, returns to Italy, wanting food and status within the Roman military hierarchy. Honorius flees to Ravenna.
361-395
1. FALL OF ROME Timeline

after constantine -until the death of Thodosius in 395
-361-363: --Rule of Julian the Apostate As Emperor, tries to disestablish Christianity.
-375-378: -- Rule of Valens in East, Gratian in West (to 383)
-378:-- Battle of Adrianopole Valens defeated, killed by Visigoths, soo fast Gratian did not have time to arrive and offer support.
-379-95: --Reign of Theodosius Renews agreements with Visigoths, they are settled as foederati below the Danube.
-380: Arianism prohibited in East ---384: Peace with Sassanids
-391: Christianity recognized as state religion Paganism proscribed, Judaism oppressed.
-395: Death of Theodosius Empire partitioned between Theodosius' sons. Arcadius in East, Honorius in West. Imperial unity between East and West ends; the East, called Byzantium, begins autonomous course
455-493
3. FALL OF ROME TImeline

From the 2nd sack of Rome by Vandals to the end.
-455: Second Sack of Rome Vandals from N. Africa sail up Tiber and sack Rome. Extended sack.
-455-476: Barbarian Roman generals and puppet emperors. Generals of Barbarian birth, such as Ricimer, Orestes, set up puppets like Marjorian, as Emperor and concentrate only on Italy and South Gaul. Expansion of Barbarian kingdoms.
-476: Deposition of last Western Emperor. Barbarian general Odovacar deposes Orestes' son Romulus Augustulus, and sends word to the Eastern Emperor Zeno that there is no need for a new Western emperor: Odovacar rules as Zeno's 'agent'.
-488-493: Theodoric the Ostrogoth unseats Odovacar Zeno the Eastern Emperor sends Ostrogoths west to end their pressure on Constantinople. Theodoric's 'mission' is to unseat Odovacar. He does so, and establishes the Ostrogothic kingdom of Italy. The Western Roman Empire ceases to exist.
529-534
Justinian Code
The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) also known as Codex Justinianus is a fundamental work in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor.was the result of Emperor Justinian's desire that existing Roman law be collected into a simple and clear system of laws, or "code". Contained Public Law (for the goverment) and Private Law (for individual) composed of Natural Law, Law of Nations, and Civil Law
300+ (4th century)
Huns
The Huns were a confederation of Eurasian tribes, most likely of diverse origin with a Turkic-speaking aristocracy, who appeared in Europe in the 4th century, the most famous being Attila
272–337
( lived for 64 years)
Constantine
Constantine I, Constantine the Great, Flavius Valerius Constantinus- a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on July 25, 306,ruled an ever-growing portion of the Roman Empire until his death.
--established Constantinople as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire
--He published the famous Edict of Milan (in A.D. 313) which granted all people in the Western and Eastern Empire religious freedom. No one would be persecuted for their beliefs. Because they did not feel coerced, many Germans converted to Christianity in the West
---He called the famous Council of Nicea in A. D. 325, which settled many theological controversies and which formulated the Nicene Creed, a statement of beliefs based on Scripture.
--Constantine's share of the empire comprised of Britain, Gaul, the Germanic provinces, and Spain. He therefore commanded one of the largest Roman armies, stationed along the important Rhine frontier
--Constantine’s legal reforms were marked by great humanity,he had done much to unify the empire. He was the son of Constantius I and Helena
313
Edict of Milan
313: Edict of Milan Constantine and Licinius, the Eastern ruler, agree to end Diocletian persecutions of Christianity. Christianity is legalized.
324
Who established the Byzantine Empire and when was it established? Why was it called this way.
The Byzantine Empire was established by the Roman emperor Constantine in A.D. 324 when he moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium on the Bosphorus in what is today Turkey. It was at first called the New Rome (Nova Roma) but was called Constantinople shortly thereafter. Constantine was the first Roman emperor to become a Christian. Why is the Eastern Greek Empire called “Byzantine?”
Because its first colonizer was a man by the name of Byzas. He started the town in around 660 B.C. (some 984 years before Emperor Constantine moved the empire’s capital there).
325-380
Arian Heresy
Arian - A version of Christianity based on the teachings of Arius, a priest who believed that Christ was less divine than God, being his son and corporeal. Though long accepted through much of the East and instrumental in converting many Goths to Christianity, Arianism was never accepted in the West and soon became known as the Arian Heresy. The resulting religious divide between Goths and Roman Christians forestalled attempts at assimilation. 380-- Arianism prohibited in East
361-395
1. FALL OF ROME Timeline

after constantine -until the death of Thodosius in 395
-361-363: --Rule of Julian the Apostate As Emperor, tries to disestablish Christianity.
-375-378: -- Rule of Valens in East, Gratian in West (to 383)
-378:-- Battle of Adrianopole Valens defeated, killed by Visigoths, soo fast Gratian did not have time to arrive and offer support.
-379-95: --Reign of Theodosius Renews agreements with Visigoths, they are settled as foederati below the Danube.
-380: Arianism prohibited in East ---384: Peace with Sassanids
-391: Christianity recognized as state religion Paganism proscribed, Judaism oppressed.
-395: Death of Theodosius Empire partitioned between Theodosius' sons. Arcadius in East, Honorius in West. Imperial unity between East and West ends; the East, called Byzantium, begins autonomous course
375-378
East-West
Rule of Valens in East, Gratian in West (to 383) Ostrogothic Black Sea kingdom destroyed by Huns. Huns push all tribes before them to the Danube and Rhine borders of the Roman Empire.
364-378
Valens
Valens - Emperor in the East from 364-378. Allowed Visigoths to cross the Danube and settle in Roman territory. Roman authorities did not supply them well with food and let them starve; revolting, they met Valens in battle near Adrianopole in 378. Not waiting for reinforcements led by Gratian, the Emperor of the West, Valens attacked, and was routed when Ostrogothic cavalry intervened. Valens died at the scene.
378-
Gratian
Gratian - Emperor in the West at time of the Battle of Adrianopole, where his Eastern colleague Valens was killed while fighting Visigoths. He tried to bring reinforcements, but Valens did not await his arrival
378
Battle of Adrianopole
Battle of Adrianopole - Battle between Eastern Roman forces led by Valens and Visigothic/Ostrogothic forces in 378. At the battle, Valens refused to wait for reinforcement led by the Western Roman Emperor Gratian, and attacked. The Romans were routed, Valens was killed, and the Eastern army was decimated. The aftermath was large-scale settlement of Goths within Roman lands.
379-384
Theodosius military achevements (plus see 1st card)
--Instead of fighting the Goths directly with demoralized Roman troops he won the friendship of the Visigoths by his courteous treatment of their king, and allowed the Visigoths to remain within the empire, they were called allies rather than subjects;
--In 383 Magnus Maximus was proclaimed emperor by British troops, and Emperor Gratian was murdered. Theodosius at first accepted his new colleague and allowed him Britain and Gaul; but when, in 387, Maximus drove from Italy Gratian's young half brother Valentinian II, Theodosius marched west, destroyed Maximus, and restored Valentinian. T
--In 391 Valentinian was murdered by his Frankish military commander, Arbogast, who then raised one Eugenius to the throne. Theodosius again returned to the West and defeated the usurper in the autumn of 394.
--The empire was then briefly reunited under one ruler; but Theodosius himself died on Jan. 17, 395, leaving the East to Arcadius and the West to a younger son, Honorius, who had been proclaimed augustus in 393. This division of the empire became permanent.
391
Christianity
391: Christianity recognized as state religion Paganism proscribed, Judaism oppressed
359-408 (lived 49 years)
Flavius Stilicho
Flavius Stilicho (c. 359 – August 22, 408) was a high-ranking general (magister militum) and Patrician of the Western Roman Empire, notably of semi-barbarian birth.After the assassination of the Western Emperor Valentinian II in 392, Stilicho helped raise the army that Theodosius would lead to victory at the Battle of the Frigidus, and was one of the Eastern leaders in that battle. One of his comrades during the campaign was the Visigoth warlord Alaric, who commanded a substantial number of Gothic auxiliaries
395
Empire partition
395: Death of Theodosius Empire partitioned between Theodosius' sons. Arcadius in East, Honorius in West. Imperial unity between East and West ends; the East, called Byzantium, begins autonomous course.
396-408
2. FALL OF ROME Timeline

from the death of Theodosius to the Visigoth sack of Rome
-396: --Visigothic departure Following Theodosius' death, Alaric takes Visigoths out of Balkans, going west.
-401-403: --Visigoth incursions into Italy Attack on northern Italy. Beaten back by Stilicho at Pollenza (402).
-406:-- Large-scale Barbarian invasion along Rhine Rhadagaesius leads great Barbarian army dominated by Vandals, and including Alans, Suevis, and Burgundians, across the frozen Rhine at Mainz. The Barbarians attack cities and agricultural areas in Gaul, forcing the indigenous population into the hills.
-408:-- Visigoths return to Italy Alaric, seeing Stilicho occupied, returns to Italy, wanting food and status within the Roman military hierarchy. Honorius flees to Ravenna.
402+
Ravenna
In 402, Emperor Honorius transferred the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Milan to Ravenna. The transfer was made primarily for defensive purposes: Ravenna was surrounded by swamps and marshes and had ease of access to Imperial forces of the Eastern Roman Empire. However, in 409, King Alaric of the Visigoths simply bypassed Ravenna, and went on to sack Rome and to take Galla Placidia, daughter of Emperor Theodosius I, hostage. In 476, the Western Roman Empire fell. Eastern Emperor Zeno sent Ostrogoth King Theodoric the Great to re-take the Italian peninsula. After the Battle of Verona, Odoacer retreated to Ravenna, where he withstood a siege of three years by Theodoric, until the taking of Rimini deprived Ravenna of supplies. After Theodoric slew Odoacer, Ravenna was the capital of the Ostrogothic kingdom of Italy.
410-455
3. FALL OF ROME Timeline

From 1st Visigothic sack of Rome to 2nd Vandal sack of Rome
-410: First Sack of Rome, Given desperate material circumstances and no concessions from Imperial authorities, Alaric permits small sack of Rome.
--410-12: Visigoths in S. Italy . Visigoths attempt to get passage to N. Africa; their ships are destroyed, and Alaric dies.
--416-419: Wallia as Visigothic King
--420s-440s: Barbarian settlements Widespread
429-35: Vandal passage to N. Africa Under Gaiseric, Vandals move through Spain, cross to N. Africa, occupy Carthage, cut off grain supplies to Rome, and begin pirate raiding.
440s: Aetius as western Master of Soldiers
440-450: Hun threat to Eastern Empire Under Kings Rugilla and Attila, the Huns raid north of Constantinople and demand increasing tributes. Eastern Emperor Marcian refuses higher tribute payments in 450.
410-455
3. FALL OF ROME Timeline

From 1st Visigothic sack of Rome to 2nd Vandal sack of Rome
-410: First Sack of Rome, Given desperate material circumstances and no concessions from Imperial authorities, Alaric permits small sack of Rome.
--410-12: Visigoths in S. Italy . Visigoths attempt to get passage to N. Africa; their ships are destroyed, and Alaric dies.
--416-419: Wallia as Visigothic King
--420s-440s: Barbarian settlements Widespread
429-35: Vandal passage to N. Africa Under Gaiseric, Vandals move through Spain, cross to N. Africa, occupy Carthage, cut off grain supplies to Rome, and begin pirate raiding.
440s: Aetius as western Master of Soldiers
440-450: Hun threat to Eastern Empire Under Kings Rugilla and Attila, the Huns raid north of Constantinople and demand increasing tributes. Eastern Emperor Marcian refuses higher tribute payments in 450.
389-477 (lived 88 years)
Geiseric
Geiseric the Lame (circa 389 – January 25, 477), was the King of the Vandals and Alans (428–477) and was one of the key players in the troubles of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. During his nearly 50 years of rule, he raised a relatively insignificant Germanic tribe to the status of a major Mediterranean power — which after he died, entered a swift decline and eventual collapse.
405–453 (lived 58 years)
Atilla the Hun
Attila the Hun (405–453) was the final and most powerful king of the Huns. he was among the direst enemies of the Eastern and Western Roman Empires:In 434 East Roman Emperor Theodosius II offered Attila and Bleda 660 pounds of gold annually with hopes of securing an everlasting peace with the Huns. This peace, however, was not long lived. In 441 Attila's Huns attacked the Eastern Roman Empire. The success of this invasion emboldened Attila to continue his westward expansion.
451
At the Battle of Chalons
At the Battle of Chalons in 451 (also called the Battle of the Catalaunian Fields or the Battle of the Catalun) a Roman coalition led by General Flavius Aëtius and the Visigothic King Theodoric I clashed violently with the Hunnic alliance commanded by King Attila. WINNERS- Romans (under leadership ofAetius/Theodoric I)
LOSERS- Huns (Attila)
455-493
3. FALL OF ROME TImeline

From the 2nd sack of Rome by Vandals to the end.
-455: Second Sack of Rome Vandals from N. Africa sail up Tiber and sack Rome. Extended sack.
-455-476: Barbarian Roman generals and puppet emperors. Generals of Barbarian birth, such as Ricimer, Orestes, set up puppets like Marjorian, as Emperor and concentrate only on Italy and South Gaul. Expansion of Barbarian kingdoms.
-476: Deposition of last Western Emperor. Barbarian general Odovacar deposes Orestes' son Romulus Augustulus, and sends word to the Eastern Emperor Zeno that there is no need for a new Western emperor: Odovacar rules as Zeno's 'agent'.
-488-493: Theodoric the Ostrogoth unseats Odovacar Zeno the Eastern Emperor sends Ostrogoths west to end their pressure on Constantinople. Theodoric's 'mission' is to unseat Odovacar. He does so, and establishes the Ostrogothic kingdom of Italy. The Western Roman Empire ceases to exist.
491-542
Timeline
===491: Anastasia Emperor. in East Schism with Rome develops due to his Monophysitism; beginning of Bulgar raids and Blues and Greens unrest.
===527-565 · Justinian's rule
===532: Nika riots · After capital city insurrection, Emperor Justinian sends forces to conquer North Africa (533) and Italy (535-52) as well as southern tip of Spain (550).
542 · Plague affecting all urban areas of Mediterranean basin
Timeline
===491: Anastasia Emperor. in East Schism with Rome develops due to his Monophysitism; beginning of Bulgar raids and Blues and Greens unrest.
===527-565 · Justinian's rule
===532: Nika riots · After capital city insurrection, Emperor Justinian sends forces to conquer North Africa (533) and Italy (535-52) as well as southern tip of Spain (550).
542 · Plague affecting all urban areas of Mediterranean basin
527-565
Justinian I
1) He codified all of the Roman Law into one book called Corpus Juris Civilis.
(2) He restored the greatness of the Roman Empire by reconquering its lost lands and, thereby, almost doubling the size of the Byzantine Empire. He did this with the help of two generals, Belisarius and Narses.
(3) He made the rule of the emperor absolute over religious matters thereby keeping the church from trying to gain temporal, earthly power. He also closed Plato’s famous Academy in Athens.
(4) He started a fantastic building program in Constantinople and helped rebuild the city after rebels burned a lot of it.
(5) He suppressed the Nika Riots. T
529-534
Justinian Code
The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) also known as Codex Justinianus is a fundamental work in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor.was the result of Emperor Justinian's desire that existing Roman law be collected into a simple and clear system of laws, or "code". Contained Public Law (for the goverment) and Private Law (for individual) composed of Natural Law, Law of Nations, and Civil Law
527-565
Justinian I
1) He codified all of the Roman Law into one book called Corpus Juris Civilis.
(2) He restored the greatness of the Roman Empire by reconquering its lost lands and, thereby, almost doubling the size of the Byzantine Empire. He did this with the help of two generals, Belisarius and Narses.
(3) He made the rule of the emperor absolute over religious matters thereby keeping the church from trying to gain temporal, earthly power. He also closed Plato’s famous Academy in Athens.
(4) He started a fantastic building program in Constantinople and helped rebuild the city after rebels burned a lot of it.
(5) He suppressed the Nika Riots. T
532
Nika Revolt
Justinian I suppressed the Nika Riots. These riots make for an interesting story:In Constantinople, fans of the chariot races called “Greens” and “Blues,” who attended the games at the Hippodrome regularly, were also political opponents. The emperor tried to subdue both factions. The two factions united in revolt against Justinian. Their cry was “Nika!” (Victory). They burned a lot of Constantinople (including the Hagia Sophia Chuch) and chose another emperor. Justinian want to run away but his wife Theodora restored his courage. With the help of his general and the troops, he trapped the rebels in the Hippodrome and killed 30, 000 of them. Then he rebuilt the burned city so that it was even more beautiful than before.
726-730
Iconoclastic Controversy
726-730 the Byzantine Emperor Leo III the Syrian or "Isaurian," ordered the removal of an image of Jesus prominently placed over the palace gate of Constantinople. Writings suggest that at least part of the reason for the removal may have been military reversals against the Muslims and the eruption of the volcanic island of Thera , which Leo viewed as evidence of the wrath of God brought on by image veneration in the Church. Iconoclasm, literally "icon-destruction," was a theological debate involving both the Byzantine church and state. The controversy spanned roughly a century, during the years 726–87 and 815–43. In these decades, imperial legislation barred the production and use of figural images; simultaneously, the cross was promoted as the most acceptable decorative form for Byzantine churches. Existing icons were destroyed or plastered over. The Iconoclastic debate centered on the appropriate use of icons in religious veneration, and the precise relationship between the sacred personage and his/her image. Old Testament prohibitions against worshipping graven images (Exodus 20:4) provided one of the most important precedents for Byzantine Iconoclasm.
1054
Christian church schism
East-West Schism. Event that separated the Byzantine and Roman churches.
The Eastern and Western churches had long been estranged over doctrinal issues such as the relationship of the Holy Spirit to the Father and the Son. The Eastern church resented the Roman enforcement of clerical celibacy and the limitation of the right of confirmation to the bishop. There were also jurisdictional disputes between Rome and Constantinople, including Rome's assertion of papal primacy. In 1054 Pope Leo IX, through his representative Humbert of Silva Candida, and the patriarch of Constantinople, Michael Cerularius, excommunicated each other, an event that marked the final break between the two churches. The rift widened in subsequent centuries, and the churches have remained separate, though the excommunications were lifted by the papacy and the patriarch in the 20th century. See also Eastern Orthodoxy; Roman Catholicism
1202
The Fourth Crusade (Sack of Constantinople)
The Fourth Crusade is called to recapture Jerusalem. but it is diverted to Constantinople instead. The capital of the Byzantine Empire would be captured, sacked, and held by Latin rulers until 1261. Launched in 1202, the Fourth Crusade was in part instigated by Venetian leaders who saw it as a means to increase their power and influence. Crusaders who arrived in Venice expecting to be taken to Egypt were instead diverted towards their allies in Constantinople. The great city was mercilessly sacked in 1204 (during Easter week, yet), leading to greater enmity between Eastern and Western Christians
1202
More on 4th crusade
The Fourth Crusade: A Bad Memory in the minds of Greek Christians. In the West, Pope Leo III called the Fourth Crusade against the Muslims in Egypt and Jerusalem. The Crusaders were mostly French, but they were supplied by the Venetians of Italy. For financial gain, the Venetians convinced the Crusaders to divert their attack from the Muslims and to direct it against Constantinople so that the riches of the city could be plundered and stolen. Churches were looted of their valuable treasures and works of art. Drunken soldiers used church altars for gambling tables. A harlot (prostitute or whore) was placed on the bishop’s throne in the Hagia Sophia Church. Libraries were ransacked and the plays of Sophocles and Euripides were destroyed or lost. This was the first time in history that the great city had ever been conquered. The victorious Crusaders set up a Latin kingdom in Constantinople that lasted for fifty-seven years from 1204-1261. Count Baldwin of Flanders was made “emperor.” The Venetians were given part of the city and all the Greek islands. The rest of the empire was divided up among the Western barons. A Venetian became the religious Patriarch of Constantinople and Roman priests replaced all the Greek priests. Most of the Byzantine rulers and aristocracy escaped safely to the Byzantine city of Nicaea in Asia Minor. While the protective Venetian fleet was away, the Byzantines managed to reconquer the city in 1261. The Byzantine Empire, however, consisted only of the city and a few strips of land elsewhere. In the 1300’s, the already weak city was struck by the “Black Death” (the bubonic plague), which killed two-thirds of the people in the city. The city was attacked by the Serbs and the Ottoman Turks (who had won independence from the Seljuk Turks). Constantinople felt so weak that in the early 1400’s, the Eastern Orthodox Church asked the Roman Catholic Church for help against the Turks. The Romans sent an army, but it was defeated by the Turks in two battles. Then the city stood all alone. The Ottomans conquered the city in seven weeks and took over the city completely in 1453. The last Byzantine emperor was Constantine XI (the Eleventh). The Muslims still control Constantinople today, but they renamed it Istanbul. They also turned the Hagia Sophia into a mosque after covering up all the mosaics and adding Islamic turrets to the church
325-1300
Constantinople
The capital of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople was founded on the remains of the ancient city of Byzantium, with construction beginning in 325. One of the richest cities on earth from 400-1300, because it was founded by the Christian Constantine. It was the capital of the Roman Empire between 330 and 395, the Byzantine Empire between 395 and 1453, and the Ottoman Empire between 1453 and 1923. It was officially renamed to its modern Turkish name Istanbul in 1930
1453
Fall of Byzantine Empire
Badly damaged by the sack of Constantinople at the hands of Roman Catholic invaders in 1204 and diminished in size, the Byzantine Empire fell to Muslim invaders in 1453. As a result the Christians in the Ottoman Empire became a tolerated minority and the church was firmly subjected to the will of its Muslim overlords. Patriarchs were found who would do the bidding of sultans and the administration of the church was often corrupt. Following the fall of Constantinople, the Russian Orthodox held that the leadership of the Orthodox Church had passed to Moscow, which came to be called the "Third Rome."
570-632
Muhammad - explanation
Mohammed (ca. 570-632) was the founder of the religion of Islam and of a political unit at Medina that later developed into the Arab Empire, or Caliphate, and a multitude of successor states. Muhammad explained, interpreted and lived the teachings of Islaam. To Muslims, Muhammad is the supreme example for all people - he was the exemplary prophet, statesman, military leader, ruler, teacher, neighbour, husband, father and friend. Unlike other prophets and messengers, the Prophet Muhammad lived in the full light of history. Muslims don't need to have "faith" that he existed and that his teachings are preserved - they know it to be a fact. Even when his followers only numbered a few dozen, Almighty God informed Muhammad that he had be sent as a mercy to all of mankind.
570-632
Muhammad - Facts
--570-Born in Mecca
--grandfather and mother died when he was a child
--poor until 595 when he married a wealthy woman, Khadija
--thought a lot about Mecca problems
--610 - saw a vision of supernatural being that told him he is the messenger of God. His friends convinced him it is true and he continued to receive the messages. They were recorded as suras that constitute Qur’an.
--613-613 started to proclaim the messages from God publicly
--622-the new head of clan of Hashim Abu-Lahab stopped protecting him and he could not preach in Mecca so he moved to Medina
--622- Medina clan accepted him as prophet. To support themselves he and other moslims attacked Meccan caravans, including large raids
--625 – 3000 Meccans attacked Medina. Attack was repulsed by moslems
--627 – 10,000 meccans sieged Medina. Muhammad protected median with a trench that foiled the cavalry.
--628 – When M. came with Pilgrimage to Mecca, meccans turned him back but he signed Treaty of al-Hudaybiya with them. It made peace and many Meccans joined moslims.
--630 - the Treaty was denounced –cancelled so he attacked Mecca with 10,000 men and came to power there and there was no resistance. By 630 was was the head of other clans after successful attacks on those tribes. After the conquest of Mecca and the victory at Hunayn in January 630, he was the strongest man in Arabia, and deputations came from tribes or parts of tribes in eastern, central, and southern Arabia, seeking alliance with him.
--630 - > new religion is shaping up. Early versions of Qur’an talk about : Judgement day (all go to Paradise or hell) and how to worship God. Prayers several times a day with touching the ground with forehead in acknowledgement of Majesty of God, suggested sharing the wealth (aimed at wealthy merchants in Mecca). In month of Ramadan fasting from sunrise to sunset was introduced, pilgrimage to Mecca was important to all Moslims.
--632 – died
Politically his great achievement was to create the framework which made possible the uniting of the Arab tribes.
610 +
Qur'an
is the central religious text of Islam. Muslims believe the Qur'an, in its original Arabic, to be the literal word of God that was revealed to Muhammad over a period of twenty-three years until his death. Muslims regard it as God's final revelation to humankind and view it as the closest thing to a part of God in the world.[2] Muslims also call the Qur'an the "Final Testament", "The Book", "Book of God" or "The Revelation." Compilations of the Qu'ran began under the Caliph Umar, but it was Uthman who decided upon a definitive copy and destroyed all other versions. The Qu'ran has never changed in substance since. The Qur'an consists of 114 chapters (surahs) with a total of 6236 verses (ayat).Each chapter, or surah, is generally known by a name derived from that chapter
622 +
Compact of Medina
(Constitution of Medina)
The Constitution of Medina establishes the importance of consent and cooperation for governance. According to this compact Muslims and non-Muslims are equal citizens of the Islamic state, with identical rights and duties. Communities with different religious orientations enjoy religious autonomy. Which essentially is wider in scope than the modern idea of religious freedom. The contract was built upon the concept of one community of diverse tribes living under the sovereignty of One God. The Medina Constitution also instituted peaceful methods of dispute resolution among diverse groups living as one people but without assimilating into one religion, language, or culture
624
Battle of Badr
Muhammad was leading a raiding party (of 300)against a Quraish caravan when he was surprised by a much larger Quraishi army (of 800). Advancing to a strong defensive position, Muhammad's well-disciplined men managed to shatter the Meccan lines and win. For the early Muslims the battle was extremely significant because it was the first sign that they might eventually overcome their persecutors in Mecca. The battle has been passed down in Islamic history as a decisive victory attributable to divine intervention or the genius of Muhammad.
630+
FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM
The Five Pillars of Islam is the term given to what are understood among many Muslims to be the five core aspects of Sunni Islam.
The TESTIMONY OF FAITH- the declaration that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is His last messenger.
RITUAL PRAYER - establishing of the five daily Prayers.
Obligatory (religious) ALMSGIVING - which is generally 2.5% of the total savings for a rich man working in trade or industry, and 10% or 20% of the annual produce for agriculturists. This money or produce is distributed among the poor.
Sawm, FASTING
THE PILGRIMAGE TO MECCA(Hajj) - this is done during the month of Zul Hijjah, and is compulsory once in a lifetime for one who has the ability to do it. If the Muslim is in ill health or in debt, he or she is not required to perform Hajj.
636
Battle on Yarmuk River
Battle of Yarmuk
Yarmuk - a tributary of river Jordan
one of the most significant battles in the history of the world, it marked the first great wave of Muslim conquests outside Arabia, and heralded the rapid advance of Islam into Christian Palestine, Syria and Mesopotamia. To throw back the Arabian invasion of Syria, the Byzantine emperor Heraclius sent two armies into the field - one from the north, the other from the Palestine coast. The Arabian general KHALID IBN-AL-WHALID pulled back his Moslem cavalry to the valley of the Yarmuk, an eastern tributary of the Jordan River. Here he received reinforcements from Medina and from some tribes of Syrian Arabs, to bring the Moslem strength to about 25,000 warriors. The combined Byzantine force, under Theodorus Trihurius, was twice as large, but much of it was composed of Asiatic auxiliaries and brided soldiers. On August 20, 636, the Moslems opened the battle with their usual slashing cavalry attacks. Although the first forays were beaten off, the Islamic horsemen continued to strike until the Byzantine lines collapsed, at the end of the day. Many soldiers switched sides. In the rout that followed, the Imperial forces suffered enormous losses; some 4000 Moslems were killed.
The defeat broke the Byzantine power in southern Syria and in Palestine. The Moslem wave swept on to Damascus without opposition. Here the capital of Islam was established for the next hundred years
After the Yarmuk, the Byzantines rapidly lost control over Syria and Palestine.
632+
Schism after death of Mohammad. Sunnites vs. Shiites
There are two main sects of Islam: Sunni and Shiite. The main difference arose following their beliefs as to who were the leaders by succession following the death of Prophet Muhammad.
The Shi'ites , from the Arabic word for "faction “, rejected the first three successors to Muhammad as usurpers, claiming the fourth, Muhammad's son-in-law Ali, as the rightful leader. They rule in Iran, Azerbaijan and also have a sizable presence in Iraq and Syria. They represent 10-15% of all Muslims.

The Sunnis, from the Arabic word for “tradition”, are the largest division of Islam (today more than 80%). They accepted the succession of Muhammad's elected successors i.e. a line of caliphs, starting with Abu Bakr.Other differences between the two main sects include the question of intercession between Allah and human beings; matters not delineated by the Koran; the means of attaining paradise; and the role of present-day Imams, or religious leaders.
Shiites (Shi'a Muslims) -
Shi'a Muslims (15% of them now) to what they consider to be the teachings of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the religious guidance of his family whom they refer to as the Ahlul Bayt. Thus, Shi'as consider the first three ruling Sunni caliphs a historic occurrence and not something attached to faith. The singular/adjective form is Shī’ī (شيعي.) and refers to a follower of the Household of Muhammad and of Ali ibn Abi Talib (Imam Ali) in particular. They have five pillars but they are organized differently. 1) Oneness: The Oneness of God 2 ) Adalah (Justice): The Justice of God
3) Prophethood: God has appointed perfect and infallible prophets and messengers to teach mankind the religion. 4) Imamah (Leadership): God has appointed specific leaders to lead and guide mankind — a prophet appoints a custodian of the religion before his demise. 5) The Day of Judgment: God will raise mankind for Judgment
Sunnites (Sunni Muslims)
Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam (80-85%). The word Sunni comes from the word sunna which means the tradition of the Prophet of Islam, Muhammad
Caliph
Caliph is the title for the Islamic leader
410
Visigothic Sack of Rome
The Sack of Rome occurred on August 24, 410. The city was attacked by the Visigoths, led by Alaric I. The Roman capital had been moved to the Italian city of Ravenna by the young emperor Honorius, after the Visigoths entered Italy. The Visigoths migrated into the Eastern Roman Empire. Soon, however, high taxes, Roman prejudice and government corruption turned them against the Empire. The angry Visigoths sieged to Rome in 408. They eventually withdrew after the Senate promised payment, but Emperor Honorius refused to pay and the siege resumed in 410.
On August 24, 410, Alaric's "slaves" stormed the gatehouse and opened Rome's Salaria Gate and the Visigoths poured in and looted for 3 days. Though it wasn't a particularly violent looting, it had a profound effect on the city. This was the first time the city was completely and totally destroyed in 800 years, and its citizens were devastated.
750
Abbasid
Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs. It seized power in 750, when it finally defeated the Umayyads in battle, and flourished for two centuries, but slowly went into decline with the rise to power of the Turkish army they had created, the Mamluks. Their claim to power was finally ended in 1258, when Hulagu Khan, the Mongol general, sacked Baghdad.
750
Abbaside Revolt
The Abbasid caliphs officially based their claim to the Caliphate on their descent from Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (AD 566-652), one of the youngest uncles of the Prophet Muhammad by virtue of which descent they regarded themselves as the rightful heirs of the Prophet as opposed to the Umayyads. The Umayyads were descended from Umayya, and were a clan separate from Muhammad's in the Quraish tribe. The Abbasids also distinguished themselves from the Umayyads by attacking their secularism, moral character, and administration in general. The Umayyads were overthrown in the east by the Abbasid dynasty after their defeat in the Battle of the Zab in 750, following which most of the clan was massacred by the Abbasids
762
Baghdad
The city of Baghdad is often said to have been found on the west bank of the Tigris on 30 July 762 by the Abbasid dynasty, led by caliph al-Mansur; however, the city of Baghdad is mentioned in pre-Islamic texts, including the Talmud. Thus Baghdad was probably built on the site of this earlier city, which was located 50 miles north of Babylon. This city replaced Ctesiphon, the capital of the Persian Empire (which is located 20 miles southeast of Baghdad), and Damascus, as the capital of an Umayyad Muslim empire stretching from North Africa to Iran.Baghdad was the largest city in the world from 775 to 935. It was hub of learning and commerce.The city was designed as a circle about 2 kilometers in diameter, leading it to be known as the "Round City". The original design shows a ring of residential and commercial structures along the inside of the city walls
762-1258
House of Wisdom
The House of Wisdom was a library and translation institute in Abbassid-era Baghdad. It is considered to have been a major intellectual center of the Islamic Golden Age. In 750, the Abbasid dynasty replaced the Umayyad dynasty as head of the Islamic empire, and in 762, the caliph al-Mansur (reigned 754 - 775) founded Baghdad, and took it as capital (the previous capital being Damascus). The Abbasid dynasty had a strong Persian bent, and adopted many practices from the Sassanid empire - among those, that of translating foreign works, except that now works were being translated into Arabic. For this purpose, al-Mansur founded a palace library, The House of Wisdom was originally concerned with translating and preserving Persian works, first from Pahlavi (Middle Persian), then from Syriac and eventually Greek.Works on astrology, mathematics, agriculture, medicine, and philosophy were thus translated. Under the sponsorship of caliph al-Ma'mun (reigned 813 - 833), it seems that the House of Wisdom took on new functions related to mathematics and astrology. The focus also shifted from Persian to Greek science. Along with all other libraries in Baghdad, the House of Wisom was destroyed during the Mongol invasion of Baghdad in 1258
600s-750
Umayyad Dynasty
The Umayyad Dynasty was the 1st dynasty of caliphs of the Islamic empire after the reign of the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs (Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali) ended. Umayya and the Prophet Muhammad both descended from a common ancestor Abd-Munaf. The Umayyad clan had bitter rivalry with the Hashim clan (from which came the Abbasid clan), especially as Abu Sufian was the most determined and bitterest enemy of Muhammad, and sought to exterminate the adherents of the new religion, by waging a series of battles. But at last, Abu Sufian embraced Islam, and so did his son Muawiya, and they provided much needed political and diplomatic skills for the management and expansion of the fast growing Islamic empire. The reign of the Umayyads saw great expansion. Muslim armies pushed across North Africa and Iran, through the late 600s, expanding the borders of the empire from the Iberian Peninsula, in the west, to what is today Pakistan, in the east. This great expansion led directly to the downfall of the Umayyad dynasty. The captured people were converted to islam and turned into warriers The bad treatment of the converted warriors caused uprisings.The Umayyads were overthrown in the east by the Abbasid dynasty after their defeat in the Battle of the Zab in 750, following which most of the clan was massacred by the Abbasids
756-1492
Umayyad Dynasty in Gordoba (in Spain) - the second one after the split
After losing the fight with Addasides, An Umayyad prince, Abd-ar-Rahman I, took over the Muslim territory in Al-Andalus (Hispania) and founded a new Umayyad dynasty there.This period was characterized by remarkable success in trade and culture; many of the masterpieces of Islamic Spain were constructed in this period, including the famous Great Mosque of Córdoba. The economy of the Caliph was based on a considerable economic capacity - grounded in an important trade -, highly developed craftsmanship, and the most modern agricultural techniques in Europe
575-641
Heraclius
1) He crushed the Persians (Iranians) who were the perpetual enemies of the Byzantine Empire.
(2) He defeated the Avars, enemies who were related to the Huns.
(3) He gave land to the peasants.
(4) He no longer used Latin at all and made Greek the official language of the Empire since most everyone spoke Greek anyway. But after this time, even the educated no longer studied Latin.
(5) He reorganized the empire along military lines. He called the provinces “themes” which were ruled over by military governors called “strategoi.” This was how the empire was organized for five hundred years. The only bad thing about Heraclius was that he did not fight well against the Muslims from Arabia, so he lost Syria, Palestine, and Egypt to them.
The Eastern Roman Empire had always controlled the land of Palestine. It was lost temporarily to the Persians. Then Heraclius crushed the Persians and regained Palestine only to lose it to the Muslim Arabs in the 600’s. It was when the Byzantines owned Palestine in the 300’s that many of the Christian churches were built in Palestine. Back then, there was no separation of church and state, so unfortunately, the church believed in using force and war to achieve its ends. Because both the Western and Eastern churches thought they had prior ownership of Palestine before the Muslims took it by force, the church felt it was justifiable to take back Palestine and free the holy sites during the time of the Crusades.
958-1025
Basil II
During his fifty-year reign, the empire reached its highest point since the reign of Justinian. He was a warrior of warriors. The Bulgarians tried to rebel, but he completely destroyed their army and gained the title of “Basil the Bulgar-Slayer.” He sent back 15,000 blinded prisoners to their king. He maintained good relations with the Russians. As a result, during his reign, Russia converted to Eastern Christianity with the help of two Byzantine missionaries, Cyril and Methodius. Armenia (the first county to become officially Christian) joined the Byzantine Empire voluntarily during his reign. Basil also retained control of southern Italy when the Lombards and Normans (Vikings living in Normandy, France) tried to take it away.
1055
Seljuk (Rise of the Turks)
The Seljuqs were a Muslim dynasty (1000- 1194) that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. Today, they are remembered as great patrons of Persian culture, art, literature, and language and for setting up an empire known as "Great Seljuk Empire" that stretched from Anatolia to Pakistan and was the target of the First Crusade.Toğrül Bey was the grandson of Seljuk. In 1055 Toğrül captured Baghdad from the Shi'a Buyids under a commission from the Abbassids.
1258
Battle of Baghdad (Mongols)
The Battle of Baghdad in 1258 was a victory for the Mongol leader Hulagu Khan, a grandson of Genghis Khan. Baghdad was captured, sacked, and burned. House of Wisdon destroyed.90,000 ppl died. The Mongols looted and then destroyed. Mosques, palaces, libraries, hospitals—grand buildings that had been the work of generations—were burned to the ground. The caliph was captured and forced to watch as his citizens were murdered and his treasury plundered. The caliph was killed by trampling.
1258
Mongols (about)
Genghis Khan (c. 1160–1227) was originally called Temujin. He united his own clan with others, forming a military juggernaut which swept across the Asian continent to the fringes of Europe and the Holy Roman Empire.Though few in number (approximately two million people at the height of their empire), Mongols were important in Eurasian history. Under the leadership of Genghis Khan, the Mongols created the second largest empire in world history.The Mongols were one of the most feared forces ever to take the field of battle. Operating in massive sweeps, extending over dozens of miles, the fierce horsemen combined a shock, mobility and firepower unmatched in land warfare until the gunpowder age. Until 1225 they continued their invasions through Western Asia towards Europe, into Persia and Kievan Rus'.
1453
Fall of Constantinople (Ottoman Empire)
The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of the Byzantine capital by the Ottoman Empire under the command of Sultan Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29, 1453. Ottoman empire used cannons for days but got into city thru unlocked gate. The city was ravaged but many citizen escaped. Constantine IX was killed in the last battle. Hagia Sofia was converted into a mosque. Scholars consider the Fall of Constantinople as a key event ending the Middle Ages and starting the Renaissance because of the end of the old religious order in Europe and the use of cannon and gunpowder. The fall of Constantinople also severed the main overland trade link between Europe and Asia.
Islam
Calendar
Islam dates from the Hijra, or migration from Mecca to Medina. 1, AH (Anno Hegira) corresponds to 622CE
Islam
Hadith
Hadith are traditions relating to the words and deeds of Muhammad. Hadith collections are regarded as important tools for determining the Sunnah, or Muslim way of life, by all traditional schools of jurisprudence.
Islam
Sunnah
Sunnah literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by the Prophet Muhammad during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus of companions of Muhammad (Sahaba), and further through generation-to-generation transmission. According to some opinions, sunnah in fact consists of those religious actions that were initiated by prophet Abraham and were only revived by prophet Muhammad.
Islam
Imam
Imam is an Arabic word meaning "Leader".
1. The ruler of a country might be called the Imam, for example. However, the capitalized term or The Imam has important connotations in the Islamic tradition especially in Shia Beliefs. It is also a Honorific title, for example Imam Abu Hanifa could be arguably translated as "The honorable/leader father of Hanifa"
2.Prayer Leader
The common everyday use of the word is for a person leading the Muslim congregational prayers, salah. In this meaning the imam is not required to be a cleric.
Salat
Prayer. Salat -namāz, meaning to pray, or to bless, generally refers to prayers that Muslims offer to God (Arabic:Allah) and most commonly refers to the five daily ritual prayers in Islam. It is one of the Five Pillars of Islam in Sunni Islam, and one of the ten Branches of Religion in Shi'a Islam
Islam
Sharia
Sharia refers to the body of Islamic law. The term means "way" or "path"; it is the legal framework within which public and some private aspects of life are regulated for those living in a legal system based on Muslim principles of jurisprudence.
Sharia deals with many aspects of day-to-day life, including politics, economics, banking, business law, contract law, sexuality, and social issues.
Islam
Jihad
Jihad, sis an Islamic term, from the Arabic root ǧhd ("to exert utmost effort, to strive, struggle"), which connotes a wide range of meanings: anything from an inward spiritual struggle to attain perfect faith to a political or military struggle
Islam
Kaaba
The Kaaba is a cube building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjidu’l-Ḥarām in Mecca. The mosque was built around the original Kaaba.
The Kaaba is the holiest place in Islam. According to Islamic tradition, God ordained a place of worship on Earth to reflect the house in heaven called al-Baytu l-Mamur .Muslims believe that Adam was the first to build such a place of worship. According to the Qur'an, the Kaaba was built by Ibrahim (Abraham) and his son Ismail

Muslims throughout the world face the Kaaba during prayers. For most places around the world, coordinates for Mecca suffice. However, in the Sacred Mosque, worshippers pray in concentric circles radiating outwards around the Kaaba. Therefore, the focus point is in the middle of the Kaaba.
Islam
Ramadan
Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic (Hijri) calendar, established in the year 638. It is considered the most venerated, blessed and spiritually-beneficial month of the Islamic year. Prayers, fasting, charity, and self-accountability are especially stressed at this time; religious observances associated with Ramadan are kept throughout the month.
Islam
Muezzin
The muezzin is a chosen person at the mosque who leads the call (adhan) to Friday service and the five daily prayers (also known as the salat) from one of the mosque's minarets (in most modern mosques, electronic amplification aids the muezzins).
Islam
Shahadah
The shahadah is the Islamic creed. It means "to testify" or "to bear witness" in Arabic. The shahadah is the Muslim declaration of belief in the oneness of God and in Muhammad as his final prophet. Recitation of the shahadah is considered one of the Five Pillars of Islam by Sunni Muslims.
English translation:
I testify that there is no god (ilah) but God (Allah), and I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of God.
Islam
Friday
Holy day
Friday is the day for communal prayer in which all male moslems are called to pray communally for the noon-time prayer in Islam, the equivalent of the Jewish Sabbath
Islam
Hegira
Hijra, as a Arabic word meaning migration may refer to:
The Hijra (Islam) emigration of Muhammad and his followers to the city of Medina in 622, marking the first year of the Islamic calendar, 1 AH
Islam
Mecca
The city is revered as the holiest site of Islam, and a pilgrimage to it is required of all able-bodied Muslims who can afford to go, at least once in their lifetime. Muslims regard the al-Masjid al-Haram (The Sacred Mosque) as the holiest place on Earth.
Islam
Hajj
The Hajj - is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. It is the fifth of the Five Pillars in Sunni Islam and one of the ten Branches of Religion in Shi'a Islam. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to do so is obliged to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime.