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### 63 Cards in this Set

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 Raw Score in SD units Mean is zero SD is 1 Score: postive or negative Z-Score Z scores Multiply by 10 (Fixed SD) Add or subtract from 50 (Fixed mean) Eliminate pos. or neg. signs T-Scires Z scores Multiply by 10 (Fixed SD) Add or subtract from 50 (Fixed mean) Eliminate pos. or neg. signs T-Scores Contraction of Standard and nine Range: 1-9 Mean: 5 SD: 2 Represent rane of percentile scores Stanine Degree: Assessment instrument produces sme results (ame situation) Reliability All instruments are a combination of individual's True ability and some degree of error Reliability is an estimate of the effect of only? unsystemetic err;s on scores Realiability the degree measure or score Free unsystematic measurement error The relationship between two (or more) things. correlation Stastical number Coefficient A stastic used to how hhow two sets of score are related. Range: +1.00 to -1.00 + and - signs direction of relationship Correlation conefficeint Range Correlation: +1.00 incdicates Perfect positive Relationship Correlation: 0.00 no relationship Between Scores Correlation: -1.00 indicates Inverse or perfect negative Age and vision Most common method in callculation Correlations Pearson-Product Moment Statical numbers estimate True variance observed variance Reliability coefficient of 90 means 90% of score is accurate 10 % of is Unsysstematic measurement error Reliability coffiecients calulated Classical test theory Same test to same group of examinees two different occasions scores are correlated Results: Stability Test-Retest Reliability Indiviuals scores from form A with form B. equivalence of two forms Individual performance Alternte or Paralled Forms Measues one addministration reliability coefficient Internal consistency 1/2 of itmes used for one score 1/2 used for second score spilit Reliabilty Instrument used to adjest the spilt-half coefficcient # of items used Spearman-Brown Formulat Formula to estimate reliability Exact, easier to compute items on instrument similar difficulty Kuder-Ricardson Formulas 20 and 21 Test questions require Choice Range of responses (Strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree etc..) Coefficient Alpha or Cronbach's Alpah Instrument has adequate reliability Specific purpose: special ed. Particular client Evaluating Reliability Coeffients Whether an instrument measures Author claims Validity Instrument can be reliable Examine instrument reliability consider Validity Appropriateness of an instrument for its inteded use (related) Validity Procedures used Expert review Important for achievement tests Con RV edidence Degree: test predicts Behaviors (criterion) SAT Aptitude test Criterion-Related Validity Evaluted (developer) using statistical Mathematics techniques Cri-RV Immediately predicts standing on crieerion Concurrent (Cri-RV) Time Lag on Test Adminstration (SAT related to Freshman) Predictive Instrument measures theoretical or hypothetical constuct or trait Construct Validity Publications: knowledgeable evalions of validity for many instruments Mental Measurement Yearbook Test Critiques Measue of Test Consistency Over Time Reliability Reliability Coeffiecients range from .65 ot .90 Good Test Measure of Test's Usefulness Behavior: personality, ability, or interst Validity Degree: Such Relationships exist Corefficients: .30 with real word behavior Validity Corealations: high as .50 IQ and academic performance Gathers Scores Specific Characteristics (norming group) Place normal distributions Standardation Standarization provides: Mean(average) SD (spread) Evaluting Test take into consideration? Normative group Devloper of Five Ssate odel of Behavior change:individual stage in the change Pochaska: Assess the Change process No intention Od Changeing unawre or under aware of problem. Change in behavior due to pressure.(judge) Precontemptation Problem does exists pro' and con's (looking for interventin) No commitment to take action Contemplation Small alterations i behavior Take stronger action Near Future Preparation Modify behavior experiences or environment to address problem. Timand and energy to change process Action Work to prevent relapse consollidate gains six months at least Maintenance Client is ask a set of questions Same manner and sequence Advantage: Reliable Disadvantage: unstructured interview encourage client to disclose any thing imporant Structured interview Questions geared to infividual no establish set of questions Advantage: easily adpte Disavantage: prone to error Take longe More skills need Unstrucctured interview Certain questions always asked. Client Specific Exploration: answers always Semi-structured interview Demographic info Present concerns Psychosocial interview (Background info) Health and medical history Define: client problem Assess change process Inital Intake process Major reasons for negative counseling outcomes for clients. Clinicains underestimate the severityy of the problems. Expectations: client develops during initial sessons influnces. Outcome Significantly Counselor's effectivenss in assessing the situation inital sessions is critical to the? effectivness of counseling Investiage if client has? Multiple concerns or problems Explore the clients problems from Multiple perspectives Ask client how and long problem exists. specific information Assess degree problem is changeable. Solve clients problems by identifying? Methods.