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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Raw Score in SD units
Mean is zero
SD is 1
Score: postive or negative
Z scores Multiply by 10 (Fixed SD)
Add or subtract from 50 (Fixed mean)
Eliminate pos. or neg. signs
Z scores Multiply by 10 (Fixed SD)
Add or subtract from 50 (Fixed mean)
Eliminate pos. or neg. signs
Contraction of Standard and nine
Range: 1-9
Mean: 5
SD: 2
Represent rane of percentile scores
Degree: Assessment instrument produces sme results (ame situation)
All instruments are a combination of individual's
True ability and some degree of error
Reliability is an estimate of the effect of only?
unsystemetic err;s on scores
Realiability the degree
measure or score
unsystematic measurement error
The relationship between two (or more) things.
Stastical number
A stastic used to how hhow two sets of score are related.
Range: +1.00 to -1.00
+ and - signs direction of relationship
Correlation conefficeint Range
+1.00 incdicates
Perfect positive Relationship
0.00 no relationship
Between Scores
-1.00 indicates
Inverse or perfect negative
Age and vision
Most common method in callculation Correlations
Pearson-Product Moment
Statical numbers
estimate True variance
observed variance
Reliability coefficient of 90
90% of score is accurate
10 % of is
Unsysstematic measurement error
Reliability coffiecients calulated
Classical test theory
Same test to same group of examinees
two different occasions
scores are correlated
Results: Stability
Test-Retest Reliability
Indiviuals scores from form A
with form B.
equivalence of two forms
Individual performance
Alternte or Paralled Forms
Measues one addministration
reliability coefficient
Internal consistency
1/2 of itmes used for one score
1/2 used for second score
spilit Reliabilty
Instrument used to adjest the spilt-half coefficcient
# of items used
Spearman-Brown Formulat
Formula to estimate reliability
Exact, easier to compute
items on instrument similar difficulty
Kuder-Ricardson Formulas 20 and 21
Test questions require Choice
Range of responses
(Strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree etc..)
Coefficient Alpha or Cronbach's Alpah
Instrument has adequate reliability
Specific purpose: special ed.
Particular client
Evaluating Reliability Coeffients
Whether an instrument measures
Author claims
Instrument can be reliable
Examine instrument reliability
consider Validity
Appropriateness of an instrument for its inteded use (related)
Procedures used
Expert review
Important for achievement tests
Con RV edidence
Degree: test predicts
Behaviors (criterion) SAT
Aptitude test
Criterion-Related Validity
Evaluted (developer)
using statistical
Mathematics techniques
predicts standing on crieerion
Concurrent (Cri-RV)
Time Lag on Test Adminstration
(SAT related to Freshman)
Instrument measures theoretical or hypothetical constuct or trait
Construct Validity
Publications: knowledgeable evalions of validity for many instruments
Mental Measurement Yearbook
Test Critiques
Measue of Test Consistency
Over Time
Reliability Coeffiecients range from .65 ot .90
Good Test
Measure of Test's Usefulness
Behavior: personality, ability, or interst
Degree: Such Relationships exist
Corefficients: .30 with real word behavior
Corealations: high as .50
IQ and academic performance
Gathers Scores
Specific Characteristics (norming group)
Place normal distributions
Standarization provides:
SD (spread)
Evaluting Test take into consideration?
Normative group
Devloper of Five Ssate odel of Behavior change:individual stage in the change
Pochaska: Assess the Change process
No intention Od Changeing
unawre or under aware of problem.
Change in behavior due to pressure.(judge)
Problem does exists
pro' and con's (looking for interventin)
No commitment to take action
Small alterations i behavior
Take stronger action
Near Future
Modify behavior experiences or environment to address problem.
Timand and energy to change process
Work to prevent relapse
consollidate gains
six months at least
Client is ask a set of questions
Same manner and sequence
Advantage: Reliable
Disadvantage: unstructured interview
encourage client to disclose any thing imporant
Structured interview
Questions geared to infividual
no establish set of questions
Advantage: easily adpte
Disavantage: prone to error
Take longe
More skills need
Unstrucctured interview
Certain questions always asked.
Client Specific
Exploration: answers always
Semi-structured interview
Demographic info
Present concerns
Psychosocial interview (Background info)
Health and medical history
Define: client problem
Assess change process
Inital Intake process
Major reasons for negative counseling outcomes for clients.
Clinicains underestimate the severityy of the problems.
Expectations: client develops
during initial sessons influnces.
Outcome Significantly
Counselor's effectivenss in assessing the situation inital sessions is critical to the?
effectivness of counseling
Investiage if client has?
Multiple concerns or problems
Explore the clients problems from
Multiple perspectives
Ask client how and long problem exists.
specific information
Assess degree
problem is changeable.
Solve clients problems by identifying?