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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
AB toxins
The structure of many exotoxins. the B portion of the toxin is responsible for toxin binding to a cell but does not directly harm it.
The A portion enters the cell and disrupts its function.
Acid dyes
Dyes that are anionic or have negatively charged groups such as carboxyls(COOH)
Acid fast
bacteria that cannot be easily discolored with acid alcohol after being stained with dyes such as basic fuchsin(mycobacteria)
Acidophile
A microorganism that has its growth optimum between 0-5.5 pH.
actinomycete
An aerobic G+ bacterium that forms branching filaments(hyphae) and asexual spores.
Active transport
The transport of solute molecules across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient; requires a carrier protein and input of energy.
Acyclovir
A synthetic purine nucleoside derivative with antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus.
Adjuvant
material added to an antigen to increase its immunogenicity.
(alum, Freunds incomplete)
Alcohol fermentation
A fermentation process that produces ethanol and CO2 from sugars.
Allograft
A transplant between genetically different individuals of the same species.
allosteric enzyme
An enzyme whose activity is altered by the binding of a small effector or modulator molecule. This causes a conformational change.
Alpha hemolysis
a greenish zone of partial clearing around a bacterial colony growing on blood agar.
Alternative complement pathway
An antibody independent pathway of complement activation that includes the C3-C9 components of the classical pathway and other serum protein factors,(properdin and factor B)
Amantadine
An antiviral compound used to prevent type A influenza infections.
aminoglycosides
A group of antibiotics synthesized by Streptomyces and Micromonospora, which have a cyclohexane ring and amino sugars. All bind to the small ribosomal subunit and inhibit protein synthesis.
Amnesic shellfish poisoning
Disease arising in humans and animals that eat seafood such as mussels contaminated contaminated with demoic acid from diatoms. produces short term memory loss.
Amphoteracin B
An antibiotic from a starin of Streptomyces nodosus that is used to treat systemic fungal infections, also topical candidiasis.
Anapleurotic reactions
Reactions that replenish depleted tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates.
Antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity(ADCC)
The killing of antibody coated target cells by cells with Fc receptors that recognize the Fc region of the bound antibody. Most ADCC is mediated by NK cells that have the Fc receptor or CD16 on their surface.
Antigenic drift
A small change in the antigenic character of an organism that allows it to avoid attack by the immune system.
Antigenic shift
A major change in the ag character, that infact alters its antigenic strain unrecognized by the host.
Antigen presenting cells
APCs are cells that take in protein antigens, process them, and present antigen fragments to B cells and T cells in conjunction with class 11 MHC molecules so that the cells are activated.
Macrophages, B cells, dendritic cells and Langherhans cells may act as APC's.
Antiserum
serum with induced antibodies.
Apoenzyme
The protein part of an enzyme that also has a nonprotein component.
Arthrospore
A spore resulting from the fragmentation of a hyphae.
Artificially acquired active immunity

Artificially acquired passive immunity
Immunity that results from a vaccine.

Immunity that results from introducing into an animal antibodies that have been produced either in another animal or in vitro.
Ascus
A specialized cell, typical of ascomyces, in which 2 haploid nuclei fuse to produce a zygote, which divides by meiosis.
Autotroph
An organism that uses CO2 as its sole or principal source of carbon.
Axial filament
Organ of motility in spirochetes. made of axial fibrils.
Bacillus
a rod shaped bacterium