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96 Cards in this Set

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Secondary bronchi supply air to the...
lobes of the lungs
Structures formed by thr branching of the trachea within the mediastinum are...
primary bronchi
List the proper order of which air passes to the alveoli.
1. primary bronchi
2. secondary bronchi
3. bronchioles
4. terminal bronchioles
5. respiratory bronchioles
6. alveolar ducts
7. alveoli
The septa divide the lungs into...
lobules
The respiratory membrane consists primarily of...
simple squamous epithelium
Boyles law states that gas volume is...
inversely proportional to pressure.
List 4 muscles that can elevate the ribs.
1. sternocleidomastoid
2. scalenes
3. serratus anterior
4. external intercostals
Expiratory movements are produced by contraction of the_______ muscle(s).
internal intercostal
When the diaphram and external intercostal muscles contract...
the volume of the thorax increases
List 4 muscles that can function in expiration.
1. rectus abdomins
2. internal oblique
3. external oblique
4. internal intercostals
The function of pulmonary ventilation is to...
maintain an adequate alveolar ventilation
henry's law states that
the volume of gas that will dissolve in a solvent is proportional to the solubility of the gas and the gas pressure.
Dalton's law states...
in a mixture of gases such as air, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of the gases in the mixture.
The partial pressure of O2 in arterial blood is app....
100mm/Hg
The partial pressure of CO2 in aretrial blood is app...
40mm/Hg
The partial pressure of O2 in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is app....
40mm/Hg

Co2= 45mm/Hg
The process by which dissolved gases are exchanged between the blood and interstitial fluids is...
internal respiration
At a Po2 of 70mm and normal temperature and pH, hemoglobin is _____ percent saturated with O2.
more than 90%.
Most of the O2 transported by the blood is...
bound to hemoglobin
Most of the CO2 in the blood is transported as...
bicarbonate ions
Co2 is the most important chemical regulator of respiration. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
A 10% increase in the level of CO2 in the blood will...
increase the rate of breathing
Hypocapnia refers to...
an increase in PCO2.
The normal rate and depth of breathing is established by the______center.
inspiratory center.
Prolonged inspirations can result from stimulating the_____center.
apneustic center
The pneumotaxic center of the pons...
modifies the rate and depth of breathing.
List 4 higher brain centers that alter the activity of the respiratory centers.
1. association areas near the primary motor cortex
2. the limbic cortex
3. the preoptic nucleusf the hypothalamus
4. Broca's center.
The Hering-Breuer reflex...
protects the lungs from damage due to overinflation
List 2 systems that are responsible for elimination of CO2 as waste.
1. urinary
2. respiratory
a mucosa consists of...
1. epithelium
2. underlying layer of areolar tissue.
The pneumotaxic center of the pons...
modifies the rate and depth of breathing.
List 4 higher brain centers that alter the activity of the respiratory centers.
1. association areas near the primary motor cortex
2. the limbic cortex
3. the preoptic nucleusf the hypothalamus
4. Broca's center.
The Hering-Breuer reflex...
protects the lungs from damage due to overinflation
List 2 systems that are responsible for elimination of CO2 as waste.
1. urinary
2. respiratory
a mucosa consists of...
1. epithelium
2. underlying layer of areolar tissue.
Cystic fibrosis is the most common lethal inherited disease affecting individuals of Northern european descent, TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
The pharynx is shared by the respiratory and digestive systems. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
The larynx contains hyaline cartilages including...
arytenoid/corniculate cartilage
The _____and ______ extend between the thyroid cartilage and the arytenoid cartilages.
vestibular ligaments
vocal ligaments
The trachea contains_____ tracheal cartilages.
15-20
During a choking episode, most foriegn objects are lodged in the_______ bronchus due to its larger diameter and steeper angle.
right primary
The right lung has 3 lobes, and the left lung has 2 lobes. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE
When charting an assessment about an abnormality heard when listening to the left lung with a stethoscope, list 4 auscultatory characteristics.
1. respiratory wheezes heard in the superior lobe
2. crackles noted in base of the inferior lobe
3. rhonchi noted throughout all lung fields
4. lung sounds diminished throughout.
Roughly______ terminal bronchioles arise from each tertiary bronchus.
6,500`
Gas exchange occurs across the respiratory membrane of the alveoli. The respiratory membrane consists of...
the squamous epithelial cells lining the alveoli
the endothelial cells lining an adjacent capillary
the fused basal laminae that lie between the alveolar and endothelial cells
Respiratory function deteriorates as a result of pneumonia because of....
inflammation causing fluids to leak into the alveoli, leading to bronchiole swelling and constriction.
Blood pressure in the pulmonary circuit is relatively low, with systemic pressures of...
30mm/Hg
What is pleurisy?
It is the resulting pain when pleural fluid is unable to prevent friction between the opposing pleural surfaces.
Determination of blood gases includes testing for...
1. pH
2. PO2
3. PCO2
One unit of measurement used commonly by respiratory therapists is...
torr
At the start of the respiratory cycle, the relationship between the intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressure is that they...
are equal
Quiet breathing is eupnea, and shallow breathing is costal breathing. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE
What is forced breathing?
It involves active inspiratory and expiratory movements and calls on accessory muscles to assist with inhalation, while exhalation involves contraction of the internal intercostal muscles.
What is resting tidal volume/
It is the amount of air you move into or out of your lungs during a single respiratory cycle under resting conditions.
What is Inspiratory reserve volume?
It is the amount of air that you can take in over and above the tidal volume.
Each 100 ml of blood leaving the alveolar capillaries carries away roughly_____ml of O2.
20ml
The term used to describe a blockage of a branch of a pulmonary artery with interruption of blood flow to a group of lobules or alveoli is...
pulmonary embolism
What is respiratory distress syndrome/
It is the condition resulting from the inadequate production of surfactant and associated alveolar collapse.
The C shape of the tracheal cartilages is important because...
large masses of food can pass through the esophagus during swallowing.
According to Boyles law, if the volume of a gas increases...
the pressure of a gas
In tissues at a normal partial pressure of O2, blood entering the venous system has about______ of its total O2 content.
75%
The apneustic centers of the pons...
inhibit the pneumotaxic and inspiratory centers.
List three structures that provide chemoreceptor input to the respiratory centers of the medeulla oblongata.
1. medullary chemoreceptors
2. aortic body
3. carotid body
Sympathetic stimulation to the smooth muscle tissue layer in the bronchioles causes...
bronchodilation.
The beating of the cilia of the respiratory passages in the direction of the pharynx forms a...
mucus elevator
The ease with which the lungs stretch in response to changes in pressure is termed...
compliance
Deep breathing is also known as...
diaphragmatic breathing
Shallow breathing is also known as...
costal breathing
n increase in the rate and depth of breathing is known as...
hyperventilation
If a student inhales as deeply as possible and then blows the air out until he cannot exhale any more, the amount of air that he expelled would be his...
vital capacity
The respiratory rate times the tidal volume, corrected for dead air, is the...
alveolar ventilation rate
List a factor that would increase the amount of O2 discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues.
decreased pH
Physical damage to the lamina propria of the nasal mucosa is likely to result in...
nosebleeds
Whenspeaking, only the first third of Joe's vocal cords vibrate, but when John speaks, half of the length of his vocal fold vibrates. Which of the two have a higher pitched voice?
Joe
Contraction of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles will...
close the glottis
During swallowing, the...
extrinsic laryngeal muscles contract
glottis closes and the epiglottis is depressed.
The chloride shift occurs when
bicarbonate ions leave the RBCs
Damage to the septal cells of the lungs would result in...
alveolar collapse
Harry suffers from cystic fibrosis and frequently has periods where he can hardly breathe. The problem is thew result of...
thick secretions that exceed the ability of the mucus elevator to transport it.
During an attack of asthma, an individuals...
expiratory reserve volume decreases.
CO2 is more soluble in water than O2 is. To get the same amount of O2 dissolve in plasma as CO2, you would have to...
increase the partial pressure of O2.
Increasing the alveolar ventilation rate will...
increase the partial pressure of O2 in the alveoli.
For maximum effeciency in loading O2 at the lungs, the...
temperature should be slightly lower than normal body temperature
A molecule that blocks the activity of carbonic anhydrase would...
cause a decrease in blood pH
Which of the following would be greater?
A- the % of O2 saturation of hemoglobin when the pH is 7.6
B- the % of O2 saturation of hemoglobin when the pH is 7.2
A- the % of O2 saturation of hemoglobin when the pH is 7.6
Which is greater/
The % of O2 saturation of hemoglobin when the temperature is 40C or 37 C?
O2 saturation at 40C
Which would be greater?
The % of O2 saturation of hemoglobin when the DPG level is low or high?
The % of O2 saturation is greater when the DPG level is low.
A drug that depresses the activity of the pneumotaxic center would result in...
increased tidal volume
If the neural connections between the pneumotaxic center and apneustic center are severed,...
pulmonary ventilation will decrease
Which is greater?
The partial pressure of O2 in expired air or in the alveoli?
That in the expired air.
Which is greater?
The partial pressure of CO2 in the alveoli, or in expired air?
That in the alveoli.
Blocking afferent action potentials from the chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies would interfere with the brains ability to regulate breathing in response to...
changes in PO2.
The volume of air that remains in the lungs after a forced expiration is termed...
residual volume
A clot lodges in one of the large arteries of the right lung. Over a period of time you would expect to observe...
increased thickness of the right ventricular wall
In emphysema, the alveoli break down and coalesce into large air spaces. The lungs also lose elasticity and compliance is increased. You would expect a person with emphysema to have...
increased dead air space
increased anteriorposterior diameter, leading to increased vital capacity
elevated PCO2 in the blood
Why is it important for divers not to hold their breath while ascending to the surface?
When breathing the compressed air from a scuba tank, the lungs are virtually completely inflated. On ascending, the decrease in pressure would cause the gas in his lungs to expand(Boyles law). Since the lungs are already inflated, this could cause overinflation and possible rupture, resulting in pneumothorax and collapsed lung.