Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/13

Click to flip

13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Regarding Hepatitis viruses, what are the 5 RNA viruses?
1. Hepatitis A
2. Hep. C
3. Hep. D
4. Hep. E
5. Hep. G
Hep. A/E are both transmitted via the fecal oral route, while the rest are transmitted via blood to blood contact. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
The hepatocytes produce enzymes that are released during cell death. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
These are the liver function enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase(GGT) and alkaline phosphatase(AP).
What is the enzyme differentiation between viral hepatitits and gall stone hepatitis?
Viral hepatitis usually causes the ALT and AST to elevate to very high levels, while GGT, AP and bilirubin are only mildly elevated.
A gall stone(obstructive hepatitis) causes the opposite to occur. Bilirubin, AP and GGT rise higher than ALT and AST.
Regarding question #4, why does this occur?
The hepatocytes produce AST and ALT. The cells that line the bile canaliculi produce AP and GGT.
With viral hepatitis there is cell necrosis as the virus takes over the cell machinery. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
The hepatocytes rupture, resulting in the release of AST and ALT. As the infection worsens, the liver swells and the canaliculi narrow, resulting in a backup of bilirubin in to the blood.
What does the hep. A virus look like/
HAV has a naked icosahedral capsid with a positive(+) single stranded RNA nucleic acid. It belongs to the family Picornaviridae.
Can serology tests help establish the diagnosis?
Yes. the HAV capsid is antigenic resulting in the host production of anti-HAV IgM and later, the anti-HAV IgG. A patient with active infection will have antiHAV IgM detectable in the serum.
Anti HAV IgG indicates old infection and no active disease. This antibody is protective for future infections.
Is there a treatment protocol?
A new vaccine is available and may be given to people at high risk of HAV infection(travelers)
If a person has been exposed, pooled immune serum globulin will prevent or decrease the severity of infection, if given early.
How is pooled immune globulin obtained?
It is obtained by ethanol fractionation from the plasma of hundreds of donors. Since anti HAV IgG is present in about 40% of the population, there will be antibody in the pooled immune serum globulin that will inactivate the virus.
What is Hep. B virus?
It is very different from HAV. It has an enveloped icosahedral capsid and double stranded circular DNA.
Regarding HBV, is it true that hospital workers are considered to be an at risk group and will have to receive immunization, because they may at times inadvertently touch the virus.
Yes.
What is a Dane particle?
It is an intact virus of the HBV. It looks like a sphere under electron microscopy. It has an envelope and an icosahedral capsid studded with protein spikes. It is a double stranded DNA with associated DNA associated polymerase enzyme.