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14 Cards in this Set

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List 2 antifungal infections used for serious sytemic infections.
Amphoteracin B
Itraconazole
List some antifungal agents that are used for less serious systemic infections.
These are the oral azole drugs. The prototype is ketoconazole/fluconazole/itraconozol.
List some antifungal agents used for topical infections.
Griseofulvin
nystatin
clotrimazole
miconozole
What is Amphitericin used for/
Systemic candida infections
Cryptococcal infections
Blastomycosis
Histoplasmosis Coccidioiodomycosis
Invasive aspergillosis
Mucormycosis
List 4 adverse reactions of Amphotericin B?
1. Renal toxicity
2. Acute febrile reaction
3. Anemia
4. Phlebitis
How does Amphotericin work?
It works by binding to ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, causing membrane diruption and osmotic lysis of the cell
What is Ambisome?
It is liposomal amphotericin B. A unilamellar liposome containing a mixture of 1 molecule of amphotericin B surrounded by a coating of nine molecules of lipid(cholesterol and distearoylphosphatidylglycerol.
Less nephrotoxicity is seen and absorption is improved.
What is Flucytosine?
It is rarely used alone. It inhibits DNA/RNA synthesis.
Most fungi are resistant to flucytosine, but cryptococcus and Candida are exceptions.
What are its adverse effects/
Bone marrow depression
nausea/vomiting/diarrhea
The reason for this is that the drugs damage DNA during its formation in rapidly dividing cells such as bone marrow and GI epithelial cells.
What are the 2 classifications of the Azole family?
Imidazoles-Ketoconozole/Miconozole/Clotrimazole
Triazoles-Fluconozole/Itraconozole/Voriconozole
How do the Azoles work?
The azoles inhibit the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system, which is involved in ergosterol synthesis.
What is Fluconozol?
It is a triazole, and is less toxic.
It kills Candida albicans well.
When is Potassium Iodide used?
It is used to treat sporotrichosis.
This is commonly picked up in gardeners.
What is Terbinafine?
It is a new oral fungicidal agent that blocks fungal cell wall synthesis.
It blocks ergosterol synthesis by inhibiting the formation of squalene epoxide from squalene.
This drug accumulates in nails and is used in tinea unguium(onychomycosis).
It possesses little drug reaction.