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18 Cards in this Set

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What are Fluoroquinolone antibiotics?
The main feature that distinguishes the fluoroquinolones from their predecessor, nalidixic acid, is the addition of a fluorine group. There are 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th generations.
What causes the resistance in this group of antibiotics?
It is caused by a point mutation in the bacterial DNA gyrase subunits.
Can these antibiotics damage cartilage in animals/
Yes. They should be avoided in children, as they have more cartilage. Achilles tendonitis and rupture is uncommonly seen.
How does Ciprofloxacin function?
It seems to inhibit gamma amino butyric acid(GABA) and can cause seizures in patients with renal insufficiency or when given with drugs that decrease renal blood flow(NSAIDs).
Are drug levels high in the kidneys and stool?
Yes. They undergo enterohepatic circulation, excreted in bile and reabsorbed in the intestine, and excreted via the kidney.
What is the coverage of Cipro/
It has a poor G+ coverage. Does poorly against Strep. pneumoniae, but better against Staph. aureus.
They do not routinely cover anerobes.
What do they cover?
Gram negatives. Are used against pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Enterobacteriae- E. coli/Salmonella/Shigella/Campylobacter.
UTI.
What else can it cover?
Legionella, Brucella, salmonella and Mycobacterium.
List 4 quinolones that have been developed for improved G+ coverage?
1. levofloxacin
2. Ofloxacin
3. Sparfloxacin
4. Grepafloxacin.
What is Trovafloxacin/
It gets G+, such as Staph. aureus and Gram neg such as P. aeruginosa and Bacterioides fragilis.
It can cause occasional liver toxicity.
What is Sparfloxacin/
Similar to the previously mentioned agents, it has 2 important side effects.
a. Up to 8% of patients develop mild to severe photosensitivity.
b. It can prolong the Q-T interval on the EKG, which may predispose the patient to arrythmias(Torsade de pointes).
What is Vancomycin?
This is an IV antibiotic. It covers all G+ bugs. It may cause a secretion of histamine resulting in red rash. Antihistamines may prevent this.
Can it used to treat Clost. difficile?
Vancomycin is not absorbed orally, so it can be used to treat pseudomembranous colitis due to C. difficile.
What is Synercid(quinopristin)dalfopristin?
It is a new antibiotic that has a wide spectrum of activity.
Linezolid is a new antibiotic that has activity against G+ organisms including those resistant to other antimicrobials.
List 2 antimetabolite antibiotics?
1. Trimethoprim
2. Sulfamethoxazole
Nucleotide and DNA formation require tetrahydrofolate(TH4). Bacteria make their ownTH4, and use para-amino benzoic acid(PABA) to make part of the TH4. people do not make TH4, it is taken as vitamins in the diet.
How do the antimetabolite drugs work?
When administered, the bacteria use it, thinking its PABA. The sulfa drug competitively inhibits production of TH4. Since our cells dont make TH4, it will not affect humans.
TH4 gives up carbons to form purines and other metabolic building blocks. After giving up a carbon, it becomes dihydrofolate(TH2) and must be reduced back to TH4 by the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase.
Trimethoprim looks like the dihydrofolate reductase of bacteria and competitively inhibits this reduction. This will inhibit bacterial DNA formation.
Giving TMP/SMX to a patient on warfarin blood thinner is dangerous. This drug interaction increases warfarin levels, resulting in a high risk of hemorrhage. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
can it be used for Toxoplasma gondii and Isospora belli. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.