Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/17

Click to flip

17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Clindamycin is not effective against Gram neg bugs. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. They can cover anerobic organisms, including B. fragilis.
When the GI tract is perforated it releases its contents of G- and anerobic bugs into the sterile peritoneal cavity. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. The aminoglycosides cover the aerobic Gram - organisms, and clindamycin covers the anerobes.
What is Pseudomembranous colitis?
Unfortunately, Clindamycin can cause this. Antibiotics can destroy the natural flora.
C. difficile may grow aggressively and secrete its exotoxin in the colon. This toxin causes epithelial cell death and colonic ulcerations that are covered witha exudative membrane.
How is pseudomembranous colitis treated.
Vancomycin or Metronidazole
What is Linezolid?
It is a newer antimicrobial agent for stamping out resistant G+ bugs.
It blocks the 50S ribosomal subunit and has activity against G+ organisms.
What is Erythromycin?
G+ organisms absorb erythromycin 100 times better than do G- bugs.
It covers G+ bacteria, Mycoplasma and the G negatives legionella and Chlamydia(atypicals)
What condition is Erythromycin particularly used for?
Community acquired pneumonia.
It is often used as an alternative to penicillin for strep/staph organisms, and allergy prone penicillin patients.
Though Erythromycin is considered a safe drug, what are some of its side effects?
1. GI irritation
2. rare cholestatic hepatitis.
What are macrolide antibiotics?
They are considered new drugs in this class;
Clarithromycin
azithromycin(can be used as an alternative to doxycycline for the treatment of chlamydial non gonococcal urethritis. It is given by mouth).
Roxithromycin
What is the relationship between Tetracycline and milk?
Tetracycline chelates with cations in milk and milk products, aluminum hydroxide, Ca+, and Mg. When it is chelated, it will pass through the intestine without being absorbed.
Doxycycline chelates cations poorly and is better absorbed with food.
List 4 clinical uses of Doxycycline.
1. Venereal disease
2. Walking pneumonia
3. Animal and tick borne diseases
4. Acne
What are some of tetracyclines adverse affects?
1. Phototoxic dermatitis(skin inflammation on exposure to sunlight)
2.Renal toxicity
3.Hepatic toxicity
4.Discolored teeth(will chelate to ca+ in the teeth and bones of babies and children under 7 years of age. Should not be given to pregnant woman.
Why are Aminoglycosides often given with penicillins?
They must diffuse across the cell wall to enter the bacterial cell, so they are often used with penicillins, which break down the wall.
They usually kill aerobic G- enteric organisms. they are also effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
List 6 aminoglycosides.
1.Streptomicin(oldest one)
2.Gentamicin(most commonly used)
3.Tobramicin(Pseudomonas aeruginosa)
4.Amikacin
5.Neomicin
6.Netilmicin
What are the side effects?
1. Renal toxicity
2. Neuromuscular blockade(auditory)
What is Spectinomicin?
It is different structurally from an Aminoglycoside. Its mechanism is similar in that it acts on the 30S ribosome to inhibit protein synthesis.
It is used to treat Gonorrhea, caused by N. gonorrhea.
What are its side effects?
It does not cause the vestibular, cochlear and renal toxicity that the Aminoglycosides do.