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What is yersinia enterocolitica?
It is a motile Gram negative rod that causes gastroenteritis. it may be ingested from contaminated foods such as milk from domestic farm animals or fecally contaminated water.
The pathogenesis of yersinia is twofold. What is it/
1. Invasion- Like Salmonella typhi, this organism possesses virulence factors that allow binding to the intestinal wall and systemic invasion into regional lymph nodes.
2. Enterotoxin- It can secrete an enterotoxin very similar to the heat stable enterotoxin of E. coli.
What is yersinia enterocolitica?
It is a motile Gram negative rod that causes gastroenteritis. it may be ingested from contaminated foods such as milk from domestic farm animals or fecally contaminated water.
List 4 other members of the Enterobacteriacae.
1. Edwardsiella
2. Citrobacter
3. Hafnia
4. Providencia
What is yersinia enterocolitica?
It is a motile Gram negative rod that causes gastroenteritis. it may be ingested from contaminated foods such as milk from domestic farm animals or fecally contaminated water.
The pathogenesis of yersinia is twofold. What is it/
1. Invasion- Like Salmonella typhi, this organism possesses virulence factors that allow binding to the intestinal wall and systemic invasion into regional lymph nodes.
2. Enterotoxin- It can secrete an enterotoxin very similar to the heat stable enterotoxin of E. coli.
What is Cholera?
It is a diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholera. It is transmitted by the fecal oral route. the bacteria attach to the epithelial cells and release cholera toxin called "cholergen". Rice water diarrhea appears to be classic for this organism.
The pathogenesis of yersinia is twofold. What is it/
1. Invasion- Like Salmonella typhi, this organism possesses virulence factors that allow binding to the intestinal wall and systemic invasion into regional lymph nodes.
2. Enterotoxin- It can secrete an enterotoxin very similar to the heat stable enterotoxin of E. coli.
List 4 other members of the Enterobacteriacae.
1. Edwardsiella
2. Citrobacter
3. Hafnia
4. Providencia
What is cholergen?
It has the same mechanism as LT toxin. there is one A subunit(action) attached to 5 B subunits(binding) The B subunit binds to the GM1 ganglioside on the intestinal epithelial cell surface, allowing entry of the A subunit. In the cell, the A subunit activates G protein which stimulates the activity of a membrane bound adenylate cyclase resulting in the production of cAMP.
What is Choler/
It is a diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholera. It is transmitted by the fecal oral route. the bacteria attach to the epithelial cells and release cholera toxin called "cholergen". Rice water diarrhea appears to be classic for this organism.
List 4 other members of the Enterobacteriacae.
1. Edwardsiella
2. Citrobacter
3. Hafnia
4. Providencia
What is cholergen?
It has the same mechanism as LT toxin. there is one A subunit(action) attached to 5 B subunits(binding) The B subunit binds to the GM1 ganglioside on the intestinal epithelial cell surface, allowing entry of the A subunit. In the cell, the A subunit activates G protein which stimulates the activity of a membrane bound adenylate cyclase resulting in the production of cAMP.
What is Choler/
It is a diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholera. It is transmitted by the fecal oral route. the bacteria attach to the epithelial cells and release cholera toxin called "cholergen". Rice water diarrhea appears to be classic for this organism.
What is cholergen?
It has the same mechanism as LT toxin. there is one A subunit(action) attached to 5 B subunits(binding) The B subunit binds to the GM1 ganglioside on the intestinal epithelial cell surface, allowing entry of the A subunit. In the cell, the A subunit activates G protein which stimulates the activity of a membrane bound adenylate cyclase resulting in the production of cAMP.
What is yersinia enterocolitica?
It is a motile Gram negative rod that causes gastroenteritis. it may be ingested from contaminated foods such as milk from domestic farm animals or fecally contaminated water.
What is yersinia enterocolitica?
It is a motile Gram negative rod that causes gastroenteritis. it may be ingested from contaminated foods such as milk from domestic farm animals or fecally contaminated water.
The pathogenesis of yersinia is twofold. What is it/
1. Invasion- Like Salmonella typhi, this organism possesses virulence factors that allow binding to the intestinal wall and systemic invasion into regional lymph nodes.
2. Enterotoxin- It can secrete an enterotoxin very similar to the heat stable enterotoxin of E. coli.
The pathogenesis of yersinia is twofold. What is it/
1. Invasion- Like Salmonella typhi, this organism possesses virulence factors that allow binding to the intestinal wall and systemic invasion into regional lymph nodes.
2. Enterotoxin- It can secrete an enterotoxin very similar to the heat stable enterotoxin of E. coli.
List 4 other members of the Enterobacteriacae.
1. Edwardsiella
2. Citrobacter
3. Hafnia
4. Providencia
List 4 other members of the Enterobacteriacae.
1. Edwardsiella
2. Citrobacter
3. Hafnia
4. Providencia
What is Choler/
It is a diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholera. It is transmitted by the fecal oral route. the bacteria attach to the epithelial cells and release cholera toxin called "cholergen". Rice water diarrhea appears to be classic for this organism.
What is yersinia enterocolitica?
It is a motile Gram negative rod that causes gastroenteritis. it may be ingested from contaminated foods such as milk from domestic farm animals or fecally contaminated water.
What is Choler/
It is a diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholera. It is transmitted by the fecal oral route. the bacteria attach to the epithelial cells and release cholera toxin called "cholergen". Rice water diarrhea appears to be classic for this organism.
What is cholergen?
It has the same mechanism as LT toxin. there is one A subunit(action) attached to 5 B subunits(binding) The B subunit binds to the GM1 ganglioside on the intestinal epithelial cell surface, allowing entry of the A subunit. In the cell, the A subunit activates G protein which stimulates the activity of a membrane bound adenylate cyclase resulting in the production of cAMP.
What is cholergen?
It has the same mechanism as LT toxin. there is one A subunit(action) attached to 5 B subunits(binding) The B subunit binds to the GM1 ganglioside on the intestinal epithelial cell surface, allowing entry of the A subunit. In the cell, the A subunit activates G protein which stimulates the activity of a membrane bound adenylate cyclase resulting in the production of cAMP.
The pathogenesis of yersinia is twofold. What is it/
1. Invasion- Like Salmonella typhi, this organism possesses virulence factors that allow binding to the intestinal wall and systemic invasion into regional lymph nodes.
2. Enterotoxin- It can secrete an enterotoxin very similar to the heat stable enterotoxin of E. coli.
List 4 other members of the Enterobacteriacae.
1. Edwardsiella
2. Citrobacter
3. Hafnia
4. Providencia
What is Choler/
It is a diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholera. It is transmitted by the fecal oral route. the bacteria attach to the epithelial cells and release cholera toxin called "cholergen". Rice water diarrhea appears to be classic for this organism.
What is cholergen?
It has the same mechanism as LT toxin. there is one A subunit(action) attached to 5 B subunits(binding) The B subunit binds to the GM1 ganglioside on the intestinal epithelial cell surface, allowing entry of the A subunit. In the cell, the A subunit activates G protein which stimulates the activity of a membrane bound adenylate cyclase resulting in the production of cAMP.
What is yersinia enterocolitica?
It is a motile Gram negative rod that causes gastroenteritis. it may be ingested from contaminated foods such as milk from domestic farm animals or fecally contaminated water.
The pathogenesis of yersinia is twofold. What is it/
1. Invasion- Like Salmonella typhi, this organism possesses virulence factors that allow binding to the intestinal wall and systemic invasion into regional lymph nodes.
2. Enterotoxin- It can secrete an enterotoxin very similar to the heat stable enterotoxin of E. coli.
What is yersinia enterocolitica?
It is a motile Gram negative rod that causes gastroenteritis. it may be ingested from contaminated foods such as milk from domestic farm animals or fecally contaminated water.
List 4 other members of the Enterobacteriacae.
1. Edwardsiella
2. Citrobacter
3. Hafnia
4. Providencia
The pathogenesis of yersinia is twofold. What is it/
1. Invasion- Like Salmonella typhi, this organism possesses virulence factors that allow binding to the intestinal wall and systemic invasion into regional lymph nodes.
2. Enterotoxin- It can secrete an enterotoxin very similar to the heat stable enterotoxin of E. coli.
What is Choler/
It is a diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholera. It is transmitted by the fecal oral route. the bacteria attach to the epithelial cells and release cholera toxin called "cholergen". Rice water diarrhea appears to be classic for this organism.
List 4 other members of the Enterobacteriacae.
1. Edwardsiella
2. Citrobacter
3. Hafnia
4. Providencia
What is cholergen?
It has the same mechanism as LT toxin. there is one A subunit(action) attached to 5 B subunits(binding) The B subunit binds to the GM1 ganglioside on the intestinal epithelial cell surface, allowing entry of the A subunit. In the cell, the A subunit activates G protein which stimulates the activity of a membrane bound adenylate cyclase resulting in the production of cAMP.
What is Choler/
It is a diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholera. It is transmitted by the fecal oral route. the bacteria attach to the epithelial cells and release cholera toxin called "cholergen". Rice water diarrhea appears to be classic for this organism.
What is cholergen?
It has the same mechanism as LT toxin. there is one A subunit(action) attached to 5 B subunits(binding) The B subunit binds to the GM1 ganglioside on the intestinal epithelial cell surface, allowing entry of the A subunit. In the cell, the A subunit activates G protein which stimulates the activity of a membrane bound adenylate cyclase resulting in the production of cAMP.
What is the pathogenesis of cholergen/
Intracellular cAMP results in active secretion of Na+ and Cl- as well as the inhibition of Na+ and Cl reabsorption. Fluid, bicarbonate and potassium are lost with the osmotic pull of the of the NaCl as it travels down the intestine.
What is Vibrio parahemolyticus?
This organism is a marine bacterium that causes gastroenteritis after ingestion of uncooked seafood(sushi). It is the leading cause of diarrhea in Japan.
What is Campylobacter jejuni?
It is a Gram- rod that looks like Vibrio cholera with a single polar flagellum. It is a zoonotic disease. It is spread via the fecal oral route via contaminated water and through unpasteurized milk. It secretes an LT toxin simolar to that of E. coli and an unknown cytotoxin.
What organisms are the three most common causes of diarrhea in the world?
Campylobacter jejuni/ETEC/Rotavirus.
Regarding Helicobacter pylori it is the most common cause of duodenal ulcers, and it can be cultured from duodenal ulcers and craters. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
Peptol bismol has bismuth salts, which inhibit the growth of Helicobacter pylori. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
Are there other drugs that may discourage the growth of H. pylori?
Metronidazole, ampicillin and/or tetracycline clears H. pylori.
What is pseudomonas aeruginosa?
It is an obligate aerobe, Gram- rod. It produces a green fluorescent pigment(fluorescein) and a blue pigment(pyocyanin) which gives colonies and infected wound dressings a greenish blue coloration, and produces a sweet grape like scent. It is resistant to almost every antibiotic.
Does it produce exotoxins?
Yes. It elaborates numerous exotoxins including exotoxin A. (stops protein synthesis). Some strains also posses a capsule that is antiphagocytic and aids in adhesion to target cells(lungs).
List some diseases caused by P. aeruginosa?
1. Pneumonia-many cystic fibrosis patients develop chronic fatal infections.
2.Osteomyelitis- Diabetic patients have an increased risk of developing foot ulcers resulting in osteomyelitis.
3.I/V drug users have an increased risk of clavilcle or vertebrae osteomyelitis.
4. UTIs
5. Endocarditis- Staph. aureus and P.aeruginosa are frequent causes of right heart valve endocarditis in I/V drug users.
6. Malignant external otitis.
Are there available antibiotics for P. aeruginosa/
Penicillin is usually combined with an aminoglycoside for synergy(piperacillin and gentamicin)
What is Bacteroides fragilis?
viridans are G= microaerophilic and are frequently isolated from abscesses. It is one of the few Gram neg bacteria that does not have lipid A in its outer cell membrane. It does have a capsule. It lives peacefully in the intestine, and is rarely present in the mouth. Following abdominal surgery anerobe antibiotics are usually given. (Clindamycin, Flagyl, Caf and others.
What is Bcaterioides melaninogenicus?
It produces a black pigment when grown on blood agar. It lives in the mouth , vagina and intestine. It may cause a necrotizing anaerobic pneumonias by aspiration of sputum.
Are there Gram + anaerobic cocci/
Peptostreptococcus are G+ anerobes that are part of the normal flora of the mouth, vagina and intestine.
Streptococcus viridans are G + microaerophilic and are frequently isolated from abscesses. these are O2 hating critters and have many names, such as Strep. anginosus and Strep. milleri, and are part of the normal flora.
Stains are solutions consisting of a solvent(H2O or ethanol) and a colored molecule, the chromagen. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
What is a chromophore?
It is the portion of the chromagen that gives off its color.
What is the auxochrome?
It is the charged portion of a chromagen that allows it to act as a dye through ionic or covalent bonds between the chromagen and the cell.
What is a Basic staain?
Basic stains( where the auxachrome becomes positively charged as a result of picking up a hydrogen ion or losing a hydroxide ion) are attracted to the negative charges on the surface of most bacterial cells.
List three basic stains/
1. Methylene blue
2. crystal violet
3. Safranin
Basic stains have a positively charged chromagen(C+), which forms an ionicx bond with the negatively charged bacterial cell, thus colorizing the cell. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.