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14 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How is neisseria meningococcal disease diagnosed?
It involves Gram stain and culture of the meningococcus from blood, cerebrospinal fluid or petecchial scrapings. It grows best on blood agar/chocolate agar. The classic medium is Thayer Martin VCN media(Vancomycin-Colistin-Nystatin), to kill competing bacteria.
Only Neisseria can grow on this media. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. The addition of a high concentration of CO2 will further encourage the growth of Neisseria.
What is the approached protocol of therapy for N. meningococcus?
prompt treatment with penicillin G or ceftriaxone is required at the first indication of disseminated meningococcemia. Close contacts are treated with Rifampin. Immunization with purified capsular polysaccharides from certain strains(A,C,Y, and W135) are available.
Neisseria gonorrhea often called gonococcus causes the second most commonly transmitted sexual disease, gonorrhea(chlamydial infections are slightly more common). TRUE/FALSE
List 2 virulence factors of N. gonorrheae?
1.PILI: Complex genes code for their pili. the result is the production of pili with hypervariable amino acid sequences. These changing antigens in the pili protect the bacteria from our antibodies, as well as from vaccines. They also serve to protect from phagocytosis.
2. Protein 2: This outer membrane protein is also involved in adherence to host cells.
A man who has unprotected sex with an infected person can acquire a Neisseria gonorrhea infection. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. This organism penetrates the mucus membranes of the urethra causing inflammation of the urethra(urethritis). Complications include epididymitis,prostatitis, and urethral strictures. Ceftriaxone is employed as therapy.
Neisseria gonorrhea also infects the columnar epithelium of the cervix, which becomes reddened and friable with a purulent exudate. TRUE/FALSE
If symptoms do develop, what symptoms might the individual complain of?
general discomfort, painful sexual intercourse(dyspareunia), and a purulent vaginal discharge.
Can gonococcal infections progress to pelvic inflammatory disease(PID) or pus in dere.?
Yes. It is an infection of the uterus(endometritis) fallopian tubes(salpingitis), and ovaries,(oophoritis). Chlamydia trachomatis is another cause of PID as well.
What is Fritz Hugh Curtis syndrome?
This is an infection by N. gonorrhea of the capsule that surrounds the liver. A patient will complain of upper right quadrant pain and tenderness. This may also follow chlamydial pelvic inflammatory disease.
What is Opthalmia neonatorum?
N. gonorrhea can be transmitted from a pregnant woman to her child during delivery, resulting in this condition. This eye infection usually occurs onb the 1st or 2nd day of life and can damage the cornea, resulting in blindness. Erythromycin eyedrops, which are eccective against N. gonorrhea and Chlamydia are given to all newborns. Gonococcal conjunctivitis can occue in adults as well.
is penicillin still used as treatment for N. gonorrhea?
NO. There arose penicillinase producing gonococcal strains and now and even tougher starain with chromosomally mediated antibiotic resistance to many antibiotics such as tetracycline,erythromycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.
What is the current therapy?
Ceftriaxone, a third generation cephalosporin. This will also treat syphilis. if the patient is allergic to cephalosporins, spectinomycin or ciprofloxacin can be employed.. the patient should also be treated with doxycycline or azithromycin for Chlamydia trachomatis, because up to 50% of patients will be concurrently infected with this beta lactam resistant (ceftriaxone included) bacteria.
What is Branhamella catarrhalis?
This organism is part of the normal respiratory flora, but can cause otitis media, sinusitis, bronchitis and pneumonia. these bacteria produce beta lactamase and are thus resistant to penicillin.