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12 Cards in this Set

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Which antibiotics target the 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits respectively?
30S-Aminoglycosides(neomycin, amikacin, tobramycin, gentamicin)
Tetracyclines(minocycline, doxycycline)
50S-Chloramphenicol, macrolides(erythromycin,azithromycin, clarithromycin)
Clindamicin, linezolid, streptogramins
What is the mechanism of action of aminoglycosides?
They inhibit the formation of ribosomal initiation complex and cause misreading of the mRNA.
Why are aminoglycosides ineffective against anerobic bacteria?
They require O2 for uptake into the bacterium.
What is the benefit and mechanism of giving beta lactam antibiotics with aminoglycosides?
Beta lactam antibiotics facilitate the entry of aminoglycosides into bacterial cells by damaging the bacterial cell wall.
Neomycin is often given orally before major surgery because it is poorly absorbed and prevents organisms from reaching the peritoneal cavity. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
What are the common side effects of aminoglycosides?
Nephrotoxicity(6%)
ototoxicity(2%)with loop diuretics,
Neuromuscular blockade via decreased acetylcholine release.
How do bacteria usually become resistant to aminoglycosides?
Enzymatically inactivate aminoglycosides by conjugation(transferred by transposons or plasmids.
Ribosomal alteration.
What species of bacteria are generally susceptible to tetracyclines?
Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Rickettsia, Borrelia burg., E. coli, Neisseria gon., Vibrio, Streptococci, legionella Brucella.
What are some side effects of tetracyclines?
Photosensitivity, staining of teeth(avoid in children) liver dysfunction, esophageal irritation and vertigo.
Tetracyclines are commonly used to treat which common skin condition in teenagers?
Acne vulgaris.
which tetracycline can be used in the treatment of SIADH(syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone)?
Demeclocycline causes nephrogenic diabetes insipidis by blocking ADH receptor in the renal collecting ducts.
What is unique about doxycycline in comparison with other tetracyclines in regard to the means of elimination?
Doxy. is eliminated in the feces(70-80%) and is not dependent on either the liver or kidney.