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12 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the clinical diseases caused by N. meningitidis?
meningitis, meningococcemia, Waterhouse friderchsen syndrome
How does N. meningitidis spread?
Via respiratory secretions.
What are the two highest risk groups for N. meningitidis infection?
Infants, 6 mos to two years. Less than 6 mos is protected via maternal antibodies and army recruits. Dorm students.
What type of immunodeficiency has the greatest risk of N. meningitidis bacteremia?
Persons deficient in terminal complement components, C6-C9
What are the key clinical aspects of a patient that leads to a diagnosis of meningococcemia?
Prodrome of fever, headache nausea, followed by vomiting, hypotension, myalgias, pink macules, papules petecchiae, over the trunk extremities and palate.
What virulence factor causes the petecchiae seen in meningococcal infections?
Endotoxin mediated blood vessel destruction leading to blood vessel hemmorhage.
What are the key signs of meningitis associated with N. meningitidis infection?
fever, nuchal rigidity, vomiting , lethargy, altered mental status. Children may have seizures.
What are the typical lumbar puncture findings in bacterial meningitis?
Increased intracranial pressure, turbid cerebrospinal fluid with > 1000WBC/microliter, increased total protein, decreased glucose and bacteria on Gram stain.
What is Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome and what are its common manifestations?
Fulminant meningococcemia leading to septic shock and bilateral hemorrhage into the adrenal glands causing a catastrophic adrenal insufficiency and death in hours.
How is N. meningitidis spread to close contacts?
Spread via asymptomatic nasopharyngeal carriers. Therapy is based on rifampin or ciprofloxacin.
How are N. meningitidis infections prevented?
Purified polysaccharide vaccine for groups A, C, Y, and W135. A conjugate vaccine for those 4 capsular polysaccharides is also available.Group B, a major cause of meningitis, is not immunogenic and not covered by the vaccine.
What is the treatment for N. meningitidis infection?
penicillin(Pen G will not eradicate it from the nasopharynx), or cephalosporin(ceftriaxone).