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16 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is a live attenuated vaccine?
This has bacteria with selective deletions of genes involved in pathogenesis. organisms replicate in the host, increasing antigenic stimulation.
What are the advantages of live-attenuated vaccines?
A single inoculation often leads to lifelong immunity.
What are the disadvantages of live attenuated vaccines?
Reversion to wild type is a possible complication.
What is a killed vaccine?
Killed vaccines contain organisms inactivated by chemical or physical means.
What are the major disadvantages of killed vaccines?
Multiple doses must be given, immunity is not lifelong, and adjuvants are often required to further stimulate immune response to antigens.
What is bacillus Calmette-Guerin(BCG) vaccine?
Live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine often used in countries where tbcx is endemic. It is effective for prevention of miliary and meningeal tbc.
What type of vaccine is the H. influenzae vaccine?
It is a conjugated vaccine to diptheria toxoid agaist the serotype b(the polysaccharide capsule in 95% of invasive strains).
The polysaccharide antigen used in the H. influenzae vaccine is a polymer of which substance normally found in the organisms capsule?
Polyribosylribitol phosphate(PRP)
What type of vaccine is the S. pneumoniae vaccine?
There are two types of vaccines available for S. pneumoniae. The first vaccine is composed of 23 polysaccharides purified from the capsules of the most important serotypes. This is indicated for at-risk adults(>65yrs of age), asplenic, and the antibody levels decrease to prevaccination levels after 10 years.
The second vaccine is the 7 valent conjugate vaccine that is recommended for all infants and children.
In addition to the H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae vaccines, name two other bacterial vaccines consisting of capsular polysaccharides.
N. meningitidis
S. typhi
In what forms are the diptheria and tetanus vaccines administered?
They are given as toxoids, a nontoxic derivative of a bacterial exotoxin that retains most of their antigenic properties.
Which two bacterial vaccines contain purified bacterial proteins?
Acellular pertussis and anthrax vaccines.
Passive immunity in the form of antitoxins is used for the treatment and prevention of which bacterial diseases?
Why should tetanus antitoxin and tetenus toxoid be given at separate sites when giving as post-tetanus exposure prophylaxis?
So that the antibodies in the antitoxin do not neutralize the toxoid.
Which 2 vaccinations should be given to sickle cell patients as prophylaxis?
H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae vaccines since sickle cell patients are functionally asplenic and prone to infection from encapsulated organisms.
Which vaccinations are important to be given to elderly patients?
Pneumococcal(>65yrs old) and influenza virus(>50yrs old) vaccines.