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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List three components of the bacterial envelope.
Capsule/cell wall and membrane
Bacterial capsules are made from what substance?
Polysaccharides(sugar monomers)
List 2 functions of the bacterial capsule.
They are considered virulence factors, that protect the bacterium from phagocytosis. They aid bacteria in attaching to host surfaces.
How does one test for capsule identification?
The quellung test. It employs capsular antibodies that bind and induce swelling of the capsule, which is then seen via light microscopy. It has been used for Strep pneumoniae.
Capsules have polysaccharides that can be used for the development of vaccines. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type B are 2 examples.
Bacterial cell walls are comprised of what?
Murein. It is a peptidoglycan(a molecule of peptides and sugars).
What color are Gram + bacteria?
They appear blue, because they effectively absorb the crystal violet stain.
What color are Gram neg bacteria?
They appear pink because theu use the crystal violet dye when treated with red safranin counter-stain.
Are the peptidoglycan layers structurally different between Gram+ and Gram- bacteria?
Yes.Gram + have a thicker peptidoglycan cell wall. Gram negative bacteria have thinner walls and a periplasmic space.
Where is Beta lactamase found?
It is found in the periplasmic space of Gram negative bacteria.
Which type of Gram staining bacteria has techoic and lipotechoic acid?
Gram positive bacteria.
What type of bacteria have lipopolysaccharide endotoxins?
Gram negative.
What are some of the harmful effects of techoic acid and LPS.
Both produce cytokine production(TNF-alpha and interleukin 1. These activate the inflammatory, complimentary and coagulation pathways that may lead to septic shock.
LPS/endotoxin has three components. What are they?
1. O-antigen(outer polysaccharide, major antigen).
2. Middle core polysaccharide
3. Inner lipid A(phospholipid that causes the pathogenic effect).
Are there any Gram + organisms that have endotoxins?
Listeria monocytogenes
How do the cell walls of Mycobacteria differ from Gram stained bacteria?
Mycobacteria cell walls have mycolic acids which cannot absorb Gram stain. They stain instead with carbolfuchsin and are referred to as acid fast.
List 6 other type of bacteria that do not take up Gram stain?
Treponema(fluorescent antibody staining)
Borrelia(Giemsa stain)
Legionella(Silver stain)
Mycobacteria(Ziehl- Neelsen)
Rickettsia(Giemsa stain)
Chlamydia(Giemsa, iodide, and fluorescent)
Mycoplasma species have a standard cell wall. TRUE/FALSE
False. Mycoplasma do not possess a cell wall.
Do bacterial cell membranes differ from mammalian cell membranes>
Bacterial membranes lack sterols, except for the Mycoplasma species.
If bacteria lack organelles such as mitochondria, do they possess an electron transport chain?
Yes. In the bacterial cell membrane.
List 2 bacteria that have a single polar flagellae.
Vibrio cholerae/Campylobacter jejuni.
What 2 bacteria have multiple flagella?
E. coli/proteus mirabilis
What are the two types of pili?
Common pili(fimbriae), mediate bacterial adhesion and sex pili, for exchange of genetic material.
List 6 types of bacteria with pili.
E. coli/Neisseria gonorrhea/C. jejuni/Bordetella pertussis/V. cholerae.
Glycocalyx is made of what macromolecule?
Polysaccharides. If it is tightly associated with the cell wall, it is a capsule. When loosely attached, it is a slime layer.
List some pathogenic bacteria that use a slime layer glycocalyx for infection.
Strep. mutans(teeth)
Strep. sanguis(heart valves)
Staph. epidermidis(catheters)
List some pathogenic bacteria that use a slime layer glycocalyx for infection.
Strep. mutans(teeth)
Strep. sanguis(heart valves)
Staph. epidermidis(catheters)
What 2 chemical features of spores allow for resistance to environmental stresses?
A keratin like coat and dipocolinic acid(core)
Bacillus and Clostridium are the two important spore forming Gram+ rods. TRUE/FALSE