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50 Cards in this Set

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Immunology
this branch of microbiology studies the complex web of immune chemicals and cells that are produced in response to an infection.
Biotechnology
This study of microbiology studies any process in which humans use the metabolism of living things to arrive at a desired product...ranging from bread-making to gene therapy.
Eucaryotic Cell
THis type of cell has a "true" nucleus
Prokaryotic Cell
This type of cell has no nucleus..a pre-eukaryotic cell.
what does the term ubiquitous mean?
when something is everywhere at once.
What did Salk and Sabin discover?
these gentlemen discovered polio-miolitis vaccines and oval-atinuated virus
What did Avery, Mcleod and McCarty discover?
that DNA = genetic material.
Where did Spiegelman go to school?
he went to the U of I.
Who created a DNA virus named vi-ex 174?
Kornberg created this.
Who set up the practice of reverse transcription...(DNA from RNA)
Baltimore and TEmin discovered this practice.
Epstein and Barr discovered what virus...? And what is it's scientific name?
they discovered mononucleosis...and it's scientific name is Epstein-Barr Virus.
What two gentlemen put two cells together (hybrid technique) and created mono-clonal antibodies?
Kohler and Milstein
Montagnier and Gallo
Who organized and named HIV/AIDS (Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus)
Arber, Smith ANd NAthans discovered what about plasmids?
These three gentlemen discovered that enzymes (endonucleases) could be used to cut plasmids (round DNA's)...REstriction endonucleases --> act on a certain point insidee DNA ring. ECOR #1...(REstriction enzyme #1...led to genetic engineering.)
What was the disease that was spread throughout London in 1854 that Snow stopped?
Cholera was the disease in this tragedy of 1854.
When did Pasteur live?
he lived in 1822-1895
What main argument did Pasteur disprove of?
He disproved of Spontaneous Generation (abiogenesis)
WHat experiment did Pasteur use to disprove of the Spontaneous Generation theory?
Swan-necked flask experiment...
Who worked on Diseases of Beer and Wine...and studied fermentation extensively...
Pasteur studied this, and the diseases caused within it.
What is Pasteurization?
Keeping a liquid (alcohol) at 62 degrees for 30 minutes
What is silkworm disease?
when sick worms had protazoan parasites.
Does Bacillus Anthracis have endospores?
YEs. this organism has endospores
What are three major disease that Pasteur discovered vaccines for:
Anthrax (bacillus anthracis) Chicken Cholera (Shigella dysenteraie),and Rabies (_________)
What are three main organisms that Pasteur worked with?
Streptococcus pneumoniae, bacillus anthracis and Staphylococcus anthracis.
what is a vaccination for pneumonia?
Pneumovax is a vacc. for htis.
Koch lived from:
he lived from 1843-1910
What giant organisms did Koch work with
He worked with Bacillus Anthracis (ANTHRAX), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Vibrio Cholerae.
Was koch a wild professor?
He was a very controlled and careful investigator.
What are 2 of koch's techniques that he is famous for?
He is famous for the "streak-plate" method, and the "pure-culture" technique. (solid media...in an agar/petri dish)
What were KOch's postulates trying to prove?
his postulates were trying to prove that Organisms cause diseases.
Can you do koch's postulates on viruses? who's postulates do you use then?
No. Instead of his postulates, for viruses you must use River's postulates.
When was the "Golden Age" of MIcrobiology?
from 1860-1900 was called this.
What is Photomicroscopy?
this is taking pictures through a microscope.
What were River's postulates?
1. THE viral agent must be found either in teh host's body fluids at the time of teh disease or in the cells showing specific lesions
2. The viral agent obtained from teh infected host must produce the specific disease in a suitable healthy animal or plant...or provide evidence of the infection int eh form of antibodies. (immunoglobulins)against the viral agent.
3. Similar material from such newly infected animals of plants must in turn be capable of transmitting the disease in question to other hosts.
When did HOoke live?
1667-...
Where can you find the gene or its disease-causing products
you can find this in the Pathogenic strains of a suspected organism
What are the three shapes of bacteria?
1.Cocci (staphylococci),
2.Rods (Straight rod, and curved rod...maybe have spores) and
3.Spiral
what is the size of a cell?
1 micro-meter
Is a nucleoid well defined?
no. this is not well defined.
What is the size of a nucleoid?
2-3 micrometers.
Are nucleoids in all or some organisms?
ALL
ARe Ribosomes in All or some organisms?
ALL
Is Cytoplasms in all or some organisms?
ALL
Are endospores in all or some organisms?
SOME
What two genuses have spores?
BAcillus, and Clostridium have spores.
ARe plasmids in all or some organisms?
SOME
Are vacuoles in all or some organisms?
some
what color is a vacuole?
this is a blue/green bacteria.
ARe Chromataphores in all or some organisms?
some.
What is a chromatophore?
THis is a photo-synthetic bacteria that keeps its chloryphyll=colored.