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144 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How is Rickettsia rickettsii transmitted?
tick bite
Clinically, how will a Rickettsia rickettsii infection look?
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Very high fever Rash starts on ankles and wrists and then spreads to trunk palms soles and face
What type of rash is Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Known as?
centripetal rash
What is the treatment for Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever?
How do you diagnose rickettsia rickettsii?
complement fixation or Weil-Felix test
What are the important coxiella organisms?
Coxiella burnetii
What are the distinguishing characteristics of Coxiella burnetii?
obligate intracellular bacterium not seen well on gram-stain
What is the difference between Rickettsia rickettsii and Coxiella burnetii?
With Coxiella, there is no rash, no vector, and no Weil-Felix OX test reaction
Where is Coxiella found?
It is found in livestock. We get it from barnyard dust. The dust blows and gets into our respiratory system.
How do we get Coxiella?
inhalation of aerosols
What disease does Coxiella cause?
Q Fever
What are the symptoms of Q fever?
1. Fever with no rash 2. ATYPICAL Pneumonia with hepatitis
Which organisms produce atypical (walking )pneumonia?
Legionella and Coxiella
What is the treatment for Coxiella?
What are the important characteritics of Ehrlichia?
Obligate intracellular bacteria Rickettsial family
How is Ehrlichia transmitted?
What does Ehrlichia cause and what does is its pathogenisis?
Ehrlichiosis infects monocytes and macrophages (Human Monocytic Ehrlichiosis
What is Ehrlichisis similar to?
Similar to Rocky Mountain Spotted fever without the rash
What are the characteristics of all Chlamydia?
Obligate intracellular bacteria Elementary body/reticulate body Not seen on gram stain Cannot make ATP Cell wall lacks muramic acid
What are the distinguishing characteristics of Chlamydia trachomatis?
Obligate intracellular bacterium cannot make ATP Found in cells as metabolically active, replicating reticulate bodies Infective form: inactive, extracellular elementary body
What are the two stages to the Chlamydia trachomatis lifecycle?
Elementary body: infective state
How could you get Chlamydia trachomatis and what form would you get?
Elementary body stage from another person, swimming pool, or hot tub
What develpoes the elementary bodies
reticulate bodies which are growing within us with the elementary bodies produced with in it
Where is Chlamydia trachomatis found?
HUMAN genital tract and eyes
What type of disease is Clamydia trachomatis?
sexual or eye infection
What serogroups are the cause of the STD (vaginal) form of Chlymidia trachomatis?
Serotypes D-K
What are the diseases caused by Chlymidia trachomatis?
(STD) Nongonococcal urethritis, cervicitis and PID, inclusion conjunctivitis, and inclusion conjunctivitis and/orpneumonia in neonates from serotypes D-K,, and trachoma from serotypes A, B and C
What serotypes of Chlymida trachomatis cause eye infections?
Serogroups A, B, and C and the disease is known as condition Chlamydia trichomatous
What serogroups cause inclusion conjunctivitis?
serogroups D-K – the same serogroup that cause the vinerial disease.
What is a trachoma – caused by Chlamydia trachomatis?
Follicular conjunctivitis leads to conjunctival scarring….inturned eyelashes….corneal scarring….BLINDNESS
What is lymphogranuloma venereum caused by?
Chlymidia trachomatis serotypes L1, 2, and 3
What is lymphogranuloma venereum characterized by?
Swolllen lymph nodes leading to genital elephantiasis...called a “BUBO”
What is the number 1 bacterial STD in the United States?
Chlymidia trachomatis
What STDs are more popular than Chlymidia trachomatis?
1. herpes 2. HPV 3. Chlymidia 4. Gonnorrhea
How would you diagnose Chlymidia?
DNA probes, ELISA, iodine stain or fluorescent antibody stain
What are the important species of Chlymidia?
Chlamydia trachomatis Chlamydia pneumoniae Chlamydia psittaci
What does Chlamydia pneumoniae cause ?
Atypical pneumonia
What organisms cause Atypical pneumonia?
Legionella Qfever Chlamydia pneumoniae Chlamydia psittaci Mycoplasma
What is one of the most important characteristics of an atypical pneumonia?
it does not produce a productive cough.
What does Chlamydia psittaci cause?
How do we get Chlamydia psittaci?
From birds, usually from people who sneak birds past customs
How would diagnose the cause of an atypical pneumonia?
take scraping, do florescent antibody, do iodine stain, ELISA, complement fixation, there are many ways
What are all Chlamydia treated with?
tetracycline or doxacycline
What is the most common cause of pneumonia in young adults?
What is the unique feature of mycoplasma and what does this mean?
it has no cell wall and thus you cannot use penicillins or cephalosporins
How is mycoplasma transmitted?
respiratory droplets
What is the reservoir of mycoplasma?
HUMAN respiratory tract
What is the medium that Mycoplasma is often grown on and why is it grown on this?
Eaton media because it contains sterols which the mycoplasma needs in its cell wall but does not produce
What does mycoplasma look like on Eaton media?
Fried Egg
What is the easy diagnostic test for mycoplasma?
Cold agglutinins test
How is a cold agglutinin test performed?
Bleed patient and put blood in ice box in the cold and the blood will aggulinate.
What is the best treatment for Mycoplasma?
When in vitro fertilization first started why were the babies usually aborted after about a month?
Ureaplasma urealyticum
What does Ureaplasma urealyticum produce?
non-Neisserial, non-Chlamydial urethritis
What are the main bacterial vinerial diseases ?
Chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, soft chanceroid, and Ureaplasma
How are fungi similar and different from our cells?
Fungi have 80 S ribosomes like our cells but they also have ERGOSTEROL, which our cells do not have
What are some of the main antifungals and how do they work?
Amphotericin-B binds to ergosterol in the cell wall. Imidazole inhibit antifungal synthesis
What are the two major forms of fungi?
hyphae or mycelium
What is a mycelium?
mass of hyphae
What is hyphae called that has no divisions?
Nonseptate or aseptate hyphae
What is Amphotericin-B’s mechanism of action?
Binds to ergosterol in the cell wall.
What is Imidazole’s mechanism of action?
inhibit synthesis of ergosterol
What is the significance of whether or not the hyphae is septate?
There is a very important disease in immunocompromised patients that is nonseptate
What are hyphae called that have divisions?
Septate hyphae
What is the name for colored hyphae?
dematiaceous hyphae
What is clear hyphae called?
If a fungus is not a in the form of a hyphae, what form will it be in?
yeast – single celled fungi
What are the important Dimorphic Fungi?
Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, and Sporothrix
What does dimorphic mean?
it that the organism is one form while within us and another form in culture
What is an example of an organism that has many different form in a culture?
Candida albicans
What is the Lacto Phenol Cotton Blue stain used for?
Any fungus can be stained with this.
What are the two major forms of fungi?
hyphae or yeast cells
What are Asexual spores formed off the hyphae?
What is an arthroconidia?
Spores are found inside the myocelium. They are asexual spores formed by a “joint”
What are asexual budding daughter yeast cells known as?
What is the first step in treating a fungus sample in the identification process, why?
treat with KOH in order to melt the human tissue away and leave only the fungus
What organism is the silver stains used for?
What is the media used to culture fungi?
Sabouraud’s agar
What can we do to diagnose fungi?
1. do serological testing for antibody 2. test for antigen by doing spinal tap 3. Stain them 4. Culture them on Sabouraud’s agar
What is the main organism that the India Ink stain is used for?
Which fungi can be diagnosed using a skin test?
Blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, Cocci
What stain can be used on most any fungi?
Lacto Phenol Cotton Blue stain
What is the number one killer of HIV patients?
Pneumocystis, which is stained using the silver stain
What is the disease that causes a superficial infection of keratinized cells?
tenea versicolor
What is tenea versicolor caused by?
Malassezia furfur
What is another name for Malassezia furfur?
Pithrosporeum orbiculare
What does tinea versicolor appear as clinically?
hypopigmented spots on the chest/back
What is a spherule?
Spores inside the spherules in tissues
What is seen in a scraping of tinea versicolor?
Spaghetti and meatballs
What is the treatment for Malassezia furfur/Pithrosporeum orbiculare?
Topical selenium sulfide
What do cutaneous fungal infections infect?
cutaneous or mucocutaneous layers of the skin
What are fungi that infect the cutanious and mucocutaneous lays of the skin called?
ring worm / dermatophytes
What are the three genera of dermatophytes?
Trichophyton Microsporum Epidermophyton
How is Trichophyton easily recognized?
It has many microconidia and a few pencil shaped macroconidia
Which type of fungus would a ringworm of the scalp be?
Which organism infects skin, hair, and nails?
Which organism infects nail and skin?
Which organism infects hair and skin?
Where does Epidermophyton infect and haw is it identified
Epidermophyton infects nail and skin and the spores are punching bag shaped. There usually three spores from one area of the mycelia.
What is a good example of a disease caused by Epidermophyton?
athletes foot
What does Epidermophyton look like under the microscope?
spores look like punching bags, and three spore arise from onearea of mycelia.
What does microsporum canidia look like?
big boat shaped canidia
What is the name for the diseases that Trichophyton, microsporum, and epidermophyton cause?
they cause tinea (ringworm)
Where is tinea capitus found?
Where is tinea corporis found?
Where is tinea pedis found?
foot……athletes foot
Where is tinea barbae found?
ringworm of the bearded region
Where is tinia cruris found?
ringworm of the genitocrural region…..jock itch
What is the treatment for ringworm?
topical imidazoles oral imidazoles or griseofulvin
What are the distinguishing characteristics of Sporothrix schenckii?
it is dimorphic
How is Sporothrix schenckii transmitted?
tramatic implantation…this is the little old ladies rose garden disease. Thorn of the rose inplants Sporothrix schenckii in the old lady.
What disease does Sporothrix schenckii cause?
lymphocutaneous Sporotrichosis…….also knowns as “rose gardeners disease
What does Sporothrix schenckii look like on culture?
it looks like daisy slusters (conidia look lke daisy clusters) it can also form “sleeve” conidia in culture KNOW THIS
What is the form of Sporothrix schenckii when it is in us?
cigar shaped budding yeast cells
What does sporotrichosis look like clinically?
you can actually see where the person has stuck themselves and where the fungus is traveling up the lymphatics
What is the treatment for Sprortrichosis?
potassium iodide in milk and also sponge potassium iodide onto the gungal lesions
Which fungi produce deep fungal infections?
Histoplasma Coccidioides Blastomyces
What are the identifying characteristics of Histoplasma capsulatum?
it is dimorphic in culture it is known as a tuberculate macroconidia in our tissue it forms small INTRACELLULAR yeasts
Where do all of the deep fungal infections start, and what are these organisms?
histoplasma, coccidioides, and blastomyces all start in the lungs
What do you know if you find a histoplasma, coccidioides, or blastomyces lesion somewhere other then the lungs
The fungus has already progressed from there and the prognosis is not good
When in our tissues, what cells is histoplasma capsulatum found in?
reticuloendothelial (RES) phagocytes
Where is the endemic area for histoplasmosis?
Mississippi and Ohio River Valley
In the endemic areas, where specifically is histoplasmosis capsulatum found?
soil (dust) enriched with bird or bat feces
What does histoplasma look like in us and in the environment?
In us – intreacelluar yeast inside phagocytic cells Environment/Culture – Tuberculate Macroconidia or microconidia
What form is histoplasmosis in when it is spread to us?
Who is histoplasmosis particularily dangerous in?
immunocompromised patients
What is the treatment for histoplasmosis?
How do you know if a the Amphotericin-B fungus treatment is successful?
you do an antibody test normally in an infection antibody is great but in fungus diseases we depend on cell mediated immunity, not antibody. If an antibody titer goes up up when treating with Amphotericin-B that is a POOR PROGNOSIS. If the antibody titer goes down, that is a good PROGNOSIS.
What organism is endemic to the US - Mexico border?
Coccidioides immitis
What are the distinguishing characteristics of Coccidioides immitis?
It is dimorphic In tissue it forms spherules with endospores In the environment, it is in the arthroconidia form. The conidia are inside the hyphae. These organisms are blowing around in the wind
What is the disease caused by Histoplasmosis?
fungus flu ….which then spreads
How would you treat a Coccidioides immitis infection?
Amphotericin-B…same as histoplasmosis
What is the stage of Coccidioides found in us?
spherules with endospores
What is the stage of Coccidioides found in culture?
What are the distinguishing characteristics of Blastomyces dermatitidis?
Dimorphic Fungus In us - large budding yeast that is double refractile cell wall In culture there are no distinguishing features
Where is Blastomyces dermatitidis endemic to?
Overlaps histoplasmosis but also spreads over to the atlantic ocean
What are the threee major systemic dimorphic fungi?
Histoplasma, Coccidioides, Blastomyces
What are the dimorphic fungi?
Sporothrix schenckii, Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidiodes immitis, Blastomyces dermatitidis
When do the opportunistic fungi cause disease?
When someone is immunocompromised
What are the distinguishing characteristics of Aspergissus funigatus?
Branching, Septate
What diseases are caused by Aspergillus?
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergissosis…which progresses to Fungus ball…progresses to Invasive aspergillosis
Who does Aspergillis especially infect?
burn victims, Cyctic fibrosis patients, and neutropenic patients
Which bacteria infects burn victims, cyctic fibrosis patients, and neutropenic patients?
Pseudomonas Aerugenosa
how to you treat aspergillis if it is systemic?