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68 Cards in this Set

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Activated sludge system
Aerobic
Denitrification
Anaerobic
Nitrogen fixation
anaerobic
Ionizing radiation
Used to preserve foods
T. ferrooxidans reaction
Fe2+ -> Fe3+
Thermophilic anaerobic spoilage
Spoilage of canned foods at high temps due to bacillus stearothermophilus
Byssochlamys
Heat-resistant fungus that causes spoilage in acidic foods
Endolith
Organism that lives inside rock
Thermophile
Optimum growth temp
Halophile
Organism that grows in high salt concentrations
Acidophile
Organism that grows below pH 4
Osmophile
Organism that grows at very low water activity
Nitrogen cycle
Microorganisms release ammonia and amino acids as they decompose dead cells
Flocculation
Uses chemicals like alum to coalesce colloidal materials
Filtration
Removes protozoan cysts and other microorganisms
Primary sewage treatment
Removes about 25-35% of BOD from sewage
Anaerobic sludge digester
Bacteria degrade organic matter and produce methane
Oxidation pond
Lagoon used for secondary sewage treatment
Trickling filter
Secondary sewage treatment to further reduce BOD
Mycorrhizae
Fungi that grow on the roots of higher plants
Rhizobium
Bacteria found on root nodules that fix nitrogen
Cyanobacteria
Photoautotrophic partner in lichen
Denitrifying bacteria
Reduce nitrates to molecular nitrogen
Bioremediation
Use of microorganisms to remove pollutants
Secondary metabolite
Product of industrial cell population after MO has largely completed it's rapid growth and in a stationary phase

Most antibiotics
Ethanol
Carbs from grain are fermented by yeasts to this
Wine
Sugars in fruits like grapes are fermented to this
Cheese
Conversion on milk sugar to lactic acid by lactic acid bacteria
Bread
Yeast converts sugar to carbon dioxide that is trapped in the food matrix
Vinegar
Acetobacter converts ethanol to acetic acid
Bioconversion
Changes in organic substrate brought about by growth of MO

Used in production of methane from biomass
Immobilized enzymes
Enzymes can be bound to solid spheres

When substrate passes over, enzymatic reactions change substrate to desired product
Amylase
Enzyme used in corn starch, paper sizing, glucose to starch
Glucose isomerase
Enzyme converts glucose that amylase formed from starches into fructose
Protease
Adjusts the amount of glutens (protein) in wheat
Rennin
Enzyme that forms curd (casein)
Malting
Starch conditioning grains allowed to sprout

Dried and ground
12D treatment
Enough heat applied to reduce endospores by 12 log cycles
retort
Uses steam under pressure to achieve sterilizations temps
Bioluminescence
Light emission from MO
Coliforms
Aerobic or anaerobic
Gram-negative
Non-endosphere forming
Ferment lactose to form gas
Biofilms
Slime communities where MO live

Biological systems
BOD
Measure of biologically degradable organic matter in water

Determined by amount of O2 required to metabolize organic matter
Trickling filter
Secondary sewage treatment to further reduce BOD
Nitogen fPixation
Nitrogen gas converted to ammonia by nitrogenase

Free living and symbiotic microbes
Denitrification
Nitrate ion -> nitrite ion ->
nitrous oxide -> nitrogen gas

Can lead to loss of nitrogen to atmosphere
Ammonification
Protein from waste -> amino acids -> ammonia
Nitrification
Oxidation of nitrogen to nitrate
Bioreactor
Vessel for industrial fermentation

pH, temp, aeration watched
Primary metabolite
Formed at same time as new cells in fermentation

Ethanol
Eutrophication
Overabundance of nutrients in lakes and streams
Flat sour spoilage
spoilage of canned foods

no gas
Biochemical cycle
Carbon, nitrogen, sulfur cycles
Carbon cycle
Carbon atoms from organisms are transferred up food chain
Deamination
Amino groups of amino acids are removed and converted into ammonia
Sulfur cycle
Conversion of reduced sulfur ->elemental sulfur ->fully oxidized sulfate
Phophorus cycle
Changes from soluble to insoluble

Organic to inorganic
Xenobiotics
Chemicals that do not appear in nature
Bioremidiation of oil sills
Enhanced by adding fertilizer w/ nitrogen and phosphorus
Algal blooms
Dense aquatic growth caused by additional nutrients
Indicator organisms
Coliforms
Primary sewage treatment
Large floating materials screened out

Sewage flows through settling chambers

Skimmers remove floating oil and grease

Sweage passes through sedimentation tanks
Sludge
Sewage solids
Secondary sewage treatment
Predominantly biological

Removes most organic matter and redues BOD

Sewage undergoes strong aeration to encourage aerobic bacteria growth
Activated sludge system
Air or pure oxygen is passed through effluent from primary treatment
bulking
sewage floats
Trickling filter
Sewage is sprayed over rocks or plastic
cheese
more noisture lost from curd, more curd is compressed, harder the cheese