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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is taxonomy?
the science of classifying organisms
Compare and contrast: archaea and bacteria
both are prokaryotic; they differ in composition of their cell walls, plasma membranes, and rRNAs
Compare and contrast: bacteria and eukaria
both are bound by ester-linked plasma membranes; eukarya have membrane-bound organelles
Compare and contrast: archaea and eukarya
both use methionine as the start signal. Eukarya have membrane bound organelles and ester-linked membranes
What is binomial nomenclature?
the system of assigning a genus and a species to each organism
Higher organisms are arranged into taxonomic groups on the basis of evolutionary relationships. Why is this type of classification only now being developed for bacteria?
Most microorganisms do not contain structures that are readily fossilized, making it difficult to obtain info on the evolution
What are three characteristics used to classify organisms into the Kingdom Fungi?
absorptive; possess cell wall; eukaryotic
List 4 ways to identify an unknown bacterium
hybridizing a DNA probe from a known bacterium with the unknown's DNA; making a fatty acid profile of the unknown; specific antiserum agglutinating the unknown; ribosomal RNA sequencing
Compare and contrast: cyanobacteria and algae
Both are oxygenic photoautotrophs. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotes; algae are eukaryotes
Compare and contrast: actinomycetes and fungi
both are chemoheterotrophs apable of forming mycelia; some form conidia; actinomycetes are prokaryotes; fungi are eukaryotes
Compare and contrast: bacillus and lactobacillus
both are large rod-shaped bacteria. Bacillus forms endospores, lactobacillus is a fermentative non-endospore-forming rod
Compare and contrast: pseudomonas and escherichia
both are small rod-shaped bacteria. Pseudomonas has an oxidative metabolism; escherichia is fermentative. Pseudomonas has polar flagella; escherichia has peritrichous flagella
Compare and contrast: rickettsia and chlamydia
both are obligatory intracellular parasites; rickettsia are transmitted by ticks; chlamydia have a unique developmental cycle
Which of the following does NOT belong with the others? A. enterobacteriales B. lactobacillales C. legionellales D. pasteurellales E. vibrionales
B. lactobacillales
Pathogenic bacteria can be: A. motile B. rods C. cocci D. anaerobic E. all of the above
E. all of the above.
Which of the following is an intracellular parasite? A. rickettsia B. mycobacterium C. bacillus D. staphylococcus E. streptococcus
A. rickettsia
When Legionella was newly discovered, it was classified with the pseudomonads because: A. it is a pathogen B. it is an aerobic gram-negative rod C. it is difficult to culture D. it is found in water E. none of the above.
B. it is an aerobic gram-negative rod
Cyanobacteria differ from purple and green phototrophic bacteria because cyanobacteria?
produce oxygen during photosynthesis
Define: elementary body
The infectious form of Chlamydia
Define: hyphae
a long filament of cells in fungi or actinomycetes
Define: thallus
the entire vegetative structure or body of a fungus, lichen or alga
Define: mycelium
a mass of long filaments of cells that branch & intertwine, typically found in molds
Define: coenocytic
a fungal filament that is not divided into uninucleate cell like units because it lacks septa
Define: septate
a hypha consisting of uninucleate cell-like units
Define: candida albicans
human pathogen in the anamorphs phylum
Define: reverse transcriptase
an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase; an enzyme that synthesizes a complimentary DNA from an RNA template
Define: genus
the first name of the scientific name; the taxon between family and species
Define: nucleic acid hybridization
the process of combining single complementary strands of DNA
Define: aerobic
requiring molecular oxygen for growth
Define: anaerobic
not requiring molecular oxygen for growth
Define: actinomycetes
genus in the actinomycetales order in the actinobacteria phylum - some human pathogens
Define: flagella
a lthin appendage from the surface of the cell- used for cellular locomotion *prokaryote: composed of flagellin; *eukaryote: compled of 9 pairs + 2 microtubules
Define: peptidoglycan
the structural molecule of bacterial cell walls consisting of the molecules NAG & NAM
Define: taxon
a taxonomic category: *phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
Define: archaea
domain of prokaryotes lacking peptidoglycan in cell wall
Define: helminth
multicellular animal - parasitic round or flatworm
Define: eubacteria
domain of prokaryotes characerized by peptidoglycan cell walls
Define: lysogeny
a state in which phage DNA is incorporatedinto the host cell w/o lysis
Define: lichen
a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and an alga or a cyanobacterium
Define: prion
an infectiuos agent consisting of a self-replicating protein w/ no detectable nucleic acids
Define: provirus
viral DNA that is integrated into the host cells DNA
Define: mycoplasma
genus in the firmicutes phylum - no cell wall - human pathogen
Define: chlamydia
genus in the chlamydiae phylum - intracellular parasite - human pathogen
Define: rickettsia
genus in the proteobacteria phylum - obligately intracellular - human pathogen