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125 Cards in this Set

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Who is: Jenner
Developed vaccine against smallpox
Who is: Koch
Proved that microorganisms can cause disease
Who is: Lancefield
Proposed classification system for streptococci
Who is: Lederberg & Tatum
Discovered DNA can be transferred from one bacterium to another
Who is: Fleming
Discovered penicillin
Who is: Hooke
First to observe cells in plant material and name them
Who is: Iwanowski
Observed viruses are filterable
Who is: Jacob & Monod
Discovered how DNA controls protien synthesis in cells
Who is: Avery, Macleod, & McCarty
Proved DNA is hereditary
Who is: Beadle & Tatum
Showed genes code for enzymes
Who is: Berg
Spliced animan DNA to bacterial DNA
Who is: Ehrlich
Used first synthetic chemotherapeutic agent *syphillis
Who is: Virchow
Said that living cells arise from pre-existing living cells
Who is: Weizmann
Used bacteria to produce acetone
Who is: Lister
First to use disinfectants in surgical procedures
Who is: Pasteur
Disproved spontaneous generation
Who is: Stanley
First to characterize a virus
Who is: van Leeuwenhoek
First to observe bacteria
Define: micrometer
A unit of measurement (used in microbiology) equal to .000001 m. (µm)
Define: magnification
The amount of increase in apparent size of an object.
Define: resolving power
The ability to distinguish fine detail with a magnifying instrument; also called resolution
Define: immersion oil
The oil acts as a bridge between the glass slide and the glass in the lens, increasing the resolution of the image
Define: ultramicrotome
A microtome is a mechanical instrument used to cut very thin slices for microscopic examination.
Define: transmission electron microscope
An electron microscope that provides high magnifications (10,000X-100,000X) of thin sections of a specimen
Define: scanning electron microscope
An electron microscope that provides three-dimensional views of the specimen magnified at 1,000X-10,000X
Define: capsule
An outer, viscous covering on some bacteria composed of a polysaccharide or polypeptide
Define: peptidoglycan
The structural molecule of bacterial cell walls consisting of the molecules NAG & NAM
Define: histones
Proteins associated with DNA in eukaryotic chromosomes
Define: chromatophores
An infolding in the plasma membrane where bacteriochlorophyll is located in photoautotrophic bacteria; also known as thylakoids
Define: mesosomes
An irregular fold in the plasma membrane of a prokaryotic cell that is an artifact of preparation for microscopy
Define: Archaea
Domain of prokaryotic cells lacking peptidoglycan; one of the 3 domains of classification
Define: eubacteria
All bacteria apart from the archaebacteria.
Define: negative stain
A procedure that results in colorless bacteria against a stained background
Define: Porin
A type of protein in the outer membrane of gram-negative cell walls that permits the passage of small molecules
Microorganism not composed of cells.
Virus
Microorganism with a cell wall made of chitin
Fungi
Microorganism with a cell wall made of peptidoglycan
Bacteria
Microorganism with a cell wall made of cellulose; photosynthetic
Algae
Microorganism that is a unicellular, complex cell structure lacking a cell wall
Protozoa
Microorganism that is a multicellular animal
Helminths
Microorganism that is a prokaryote without a peptigdoglycan cell wall
Archaea
Which of the following is a scientific name? A. Mycobacterium tuberculosis B. Tubercle bacillus
A. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of bacteria? A. are prokaryotic B. have a peptidoglycan cell wall C. have the same shape D. grow by binary fission E. have the ability to move
C. have the same shape
Recombinant DNA is
the DNA resulting when genes of 2 different organisms are mixed
What is the definition of biogenesis?
Living cells can only arise from preexisting living cells.
Which of the following would be an essential function performed by bacteria? A. control insect populations B. directly provide food for humans C. decompose organic material and recycle elements D. cause disease E. produce human growth hormones such as insulin
C. decompose organic material and recycle elements
Which is an example of bioremediation? A. application of oil-degrading bacteria to an oil spill B. application of bacteria to a crop to prevent frost damage C. fixation of gaseous nitrogen into usable nitrogen D. production by bacteria of a human protein such as interferon E. all of the above
A. application of oil-degrading bacteria to an oil spill
Which of the following statements is true? A. All life requires air B. Only disease-causing organisms require air C. Some microbes do not require air D. Pasteur kept air out of his biogenesis experiments E. Lavoisier was mistaken
C. Some microbes do not require air
Which of the following about E. Coli is NOT true? A. E. coli was the first disease-causing bacterium identified by Koch B. E. coli is part of the normal microbiota of humans C. E. coli is beneficial in human intestines D. A disease-causing strain of E. coli causes bloody diarrhea E. none of the above.
A. E. coli was the first disease-causing bacterium identified by Koch
1 µm = _______________m.
0.000001
1 ________ = .000000001 m
nanometer (nm)
1 µm = _____________nm.
1000 nm
Which type of microscope would be best to observe: a stained bacterial smear
Compound Light
Which type of microscope would be best to observe: unstained bacterial cells when the cells are small and no detail is needed
Darkfield
Which type of microscope would be best to observe: a sample that emits light when illuminated with ultraviolet light
Fluorescent
Which type of microscope would be best to observe: intracellular detail of a cell that is 1 µm long
Electron
Which type of microscope would be best to observe: unstained live cells in which intracellular structures are shown in color
Differential
Which type of microscope would be best to observe: unstained live tissue when it is desirable to see some intracellular detail
Phase-Contrast
The maximum magnification of a compound microscope is
2000X
The maximum magnification of an electron microscope is
100,000X
The maximum resolution of a compound microscope is
.2 µm
The maximum resolution of an electron microscope is
.0025 µm
An electron microscope differs from a light microscope in that _____ focused by _____ is used instead of light, and the image is viewed on ____ instead of through the ocular lenses.
beam of electrons; magnets; television like screen or photographic plate
When is it most appropriate to use a simple stain
A simple stain is used to determine cell shape and arrangement
(2)
When is it most appropriate to use a differential stain
A differential stain is used to distinguish kinds of bacteria based on their reaction to the differential stain
When is it most appropriate to use a negative stain
A negative stain does not distort the cell and is used to determine cell shape, size and the presence of a capsule
(3)
When is it most appropriate to use a flagella stain
A flagella stain is used to determine the number and arrangement of flagella
Why do basic dyes stain bacterial cells?
Bacterial cells have a slightly negative charge, and the colored positive ion of a basic dye is attracted to the negative charge of the cell.
Why don't acidic dyes stain bacterial cells?
Acid dyes do not stain because the negatively charged colored ion is repelled by the like charge of the cell.
Why is a mordant used in the Gram stain?
The mordant combines with the basic dye to form a complex that will not wash out of gram-positive cells
Why is a mordant used in the flagella stain?
The mordant accumulates on the flagella so they can be seen with a light microscope
What is the purpose of a counterstain in the acid-fast stain?
A counterstain stains the colorless non-acid-fast cells that they are easily seen through a microscope
What is the purpose of a decolorizer in the Gram stain?
The decolorizer removes the color from the gram-negative cells.
What is the purpose of a decolorizer in the acid-fast stain?
The decolorizer removes the color from the non-acid-fast cells.
In the endospore stain, safranin is the ________. In the Gram stain, safranin is the _____.
counterstain; counterstain
Appearance after the crystal violet step of Gram-Positive Cells is
Purple
Appearance after the iodine step of Gram-Positive Cells is
Purple
Appearance after the alcohol-acetone step of Gram-Positive Cells is
Purple
Appearance after the safranin step of Gram-Positive Cells is
Purple
Appearance after the crystal violet step of Gram-Negative Cells is
Purple
Appearance after the iodine step of Gram-Negative Cells is
Purple
Appearance after the alcohol-acetone step of Gram-Negative Cells is
Colorless
Appearance after the safranin step of Gram-Negative Cells is
Red
Assume you stain Bacillus by applying malachite green with heat and then counterstain with safranin. Through the microscope, the green structures are ___.
impossible to identify
Carbolfuchsin can be used as a simple stain and a negative stain. As a simple stain, the pH is____.
higher than the negative stain
Looking at the cell of a photosynthetic microorganism, you observe that the chloroplasts are green in brightfield microscopy and red in fluorescence microscopy. You conclude that: a. chlorophyll is fluorescent b. the magnification has distorted the image c. you're not looking at the same structure in both microscopes d. the stain masked the green color e. none of the above
chlorophyll is fluorescent
Which of the following is NOT a functional analogous pair of stains? A. nigrosin and malachite green B. Crystal violet and carbolfuchsin C. safranin and methylene blue D. ethanol-acetone and acid-alcohol E. none of the above
A. nigrosin and malachite green
Which of the following pairs is mismatched? A. capsule-negative stain B. cell arrangement-simple stain C. cell size-negative stain D. Gram stain-bacterial identification E. none of the above
E. none of the above
Assume you stain Clostridium by applying a basic stain, carbolfuchsin, with heat, decolorizing with acid-alcohol, and counterstaining with an acidic stain, nigrosin. Through the microscope, the endospores are__________, and the cells are stained _________.
red; colorless
Assume that you are viewing a Gram-stained field of red cocci and blue bacilli through the microscope. You can safely conclude that you have _________.
Two different species
In 1996, scientists described a new tapeworm parasite that had killed at least one person. The initial examination of the patient's abdominal mass was most likely made using what kind of microscopy?
Brightfield
Which is NOT a modification of a compound light microscope? A. brightfield B. darkfield C. electron D. phase-contrast E. fluorescence
C. electron
Which cell structure does this function: attatchment to surfaces
Fimbriae
Which cell structure does this function: motility
Flagella
Which cell structure does this function: protection from osmotic lysis
Cell Wall
Which cell structure does this function: protection from phagocytes & attachment to surfaces
Glycocalyx
Which cell structure does this function: resting
Endospore
Which cell structure does this function: protein synthesis
Ribosomes
Which cell structure does this function: selectively permeable
Plasma membrane
Which cell structure does this function: transfer of genetic material
Pili
Why is an endospore called a resting structure?
Because it is a method of one cell "resting" or surviving as opposed to growing and reproducing
Of what advantage is an endospore to a bacterial cell?
The protective endospore wall allows a bacterium to withstand adverse conditions in the environment
Compare & Contrast: Simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion
Both allow materials to cross the plasma membrane from a high concentration to a low concentration without expending energy. Facilitated diffusion requires carrier proteins
Compare & Contrast: Active transport and facilitated diffusion
Both require enzymes to move materials across the plasma membrane. In active transport, energy is expelled
Compare & Contrast: Active transport and group translocation
Both move materials across the plasma membrane with an expenditure of energy. In group translocation, the substrate is changed after it crosses the membrane
Why are mycoplasmas resistant to antibiotics that interfere with cell wall synthesis?
Mycoplasmas do not have cell walls
Compare & Contrast: scheroplast and L form
Both lack cell walls. A scheroplast is a gram-negative cell whose wall has been destroyed by lysozyme. An L form is a cell that is not synthesizing a complete wall
Compare & Contrast: Mycoplasma and L form
Both lack cell walls. Mycoplasmas do not normally (genetically) make walls. L forms do not make walls because of environmental reasons, e.g. pennicillin
Which eukaryotic cell structure does this function: digestive enzyme storage
lysosomes
Which eukaryotic cell structure does this function: oxidation of fatty acids
peroxisomes
Which eukaryotic cell structure does this function: microtubule formation
pericentriolar material
Which eukaryotic cell structure does this function: photosynthesis
chloroplasts
Which eukaryotic cell structure does this function: protein synthesis
rough ER
Which eukaryotic cell structure does this function: respiration
mitochondria
Which eukaryotic cell structure does this function: secretion
Golgi complex
Which of the following is NOT a distinguising characteristic of prokaryotic cells? A. They usually have a single, circular chromosome B. They lack membrane-enclosed organelles C. They have cell walls containing peptidoglycan D. Their DNA is not associated with histones E. They lack a plasma membrane
E. They lack a plasma membrane
What happens when a gram-positive bacterium is placed in distilled water and penicillin?
The cell will undergo osmotic lysis
What happens when a gram-negative bacterium is placed in distilled water and penicillin?
Water will move into the cell
What happens when a gram-positive bacterium is placed in an aqueous solution of lysozyme and 10% sucrose?
No change will result; the solution is isotonic
What happens to a cell exposed to polymyxins that destroy phospholipids?
Intracellular contents will leak from the cell
Which of the following is not true about fimbriae? A. They are composed of protein B. They may be used for attachment C. They are found on gram-negative cells D. They are composed of pilin E. They may be used for motility
E. They may be used for motility
Which of the following pairs is mismatched? A. glycocalyx-adherence B. pili-reproduction C. membrane-DNA synthesis D. cell wall-protection E. plasma membrane-transport
B. pili-reproduction
Which of the following pairs is mismatched? A. metachromatic granules-stored phosphates B. polysaccharide granules-stored starch C. lipid inclusions-poly-B-hydroxybutyric acid D. sulfur granules-energy reserve E. ribosomes-protein storage
E. ribosomes-protein storage
You have isolated a motile, gram-positive cell with no visible nucleus. You can assume this cell has: A. ribosomes B. mitochondria C. an endoplasmic reticulum D. a Golgi complex E. all of the above
A. ribosomes
The antibiotic amphothericin B disrupts plasma membranes by combining with sterols; it will affect all of the following excepts: A. Animal cells B. bacterial cells C. fungal cells D. Mycoplasma cells E. plant cells
B. bacterial cells