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88 Cards in this Set

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Typhoid Fever
**most severe of all enteric diseases; systemic
(C.A)
Salmonella Typhi
Typhoid Fever
**most severe of all enteric diseases; systemic
(symptoms)
*rose spots on trunk
*gradual temp to 104
*diarrhea/vomiting
*sore in small intestine
*gall bladder always infected (may be carried a long time there)
Typhoid Fever
**most severe of all enteric diseases; systemic
(treatment)
ABC
rehydration
Typhoid Fever
**most severe of all enteric diseases; systemic
(reservoir)
human
Typhoid Fever
**most severe of all enteric diseases; systemic
(transmission)
*urine and fecal contamination of food and water
*asymptomatic carrier
Typhoid Fever
**most severe of all enteric diseases; systemic
(prevention)
*PBH
*sanitary techniques for water/body wastes
*gall bladder removal
*vax no good
Salmonella Septicemia
**blood poisoning; systemic
(CA)
Salmonella Choleresis
Salmonella Septicemia
**blood poisoning; systemic
(symptoms)
*bacteria invades blood stream causing abcesses
*leads to meningitis,endocarditis, arthritis, pneumonia
Salmonella Septicemia
**blood poisoning; systemic
(treatment)
ABC
rehydration
Salmonella Septicemia
**blood poisoning; systemic
(reservoir)
humans (primary)
hogs, cattle, poultry => secondary
Salmonella Septicemia
**blood poisoning; systemic
(transmission)
*urine and feal contamination of food/water
*asymptomatic carrier
Salmonella Septicemia
**blood poisoning; systemic
(prevention)
*PBH
*sanitary techniques for water/body wastes
*gall bladder removal (cholecystectomy)
Salmonella Food Poisoning
*24hr flu, food poisoning
(CA)
Salmonella
Salmonella Food Infection
*24hr flu, food poisoning
(symptoms)
*nausea
*vomiting/diarrhea
*abdominal pain
*gastroenteritis w/in 48 hours after eating the toxin
Salmonella Food Poisoning
*24hr flu, food poisoning
(treatment)
non-specific
rehydration
Salmonella Food Infection
*24hr flu, food poisoning
(reservoir)
*humans (primary)
*cracked eggs and turtles (true food born disease)
*hogs, cattle, poultry => secondary
Salmonella Food Infection
*24hr flu, food poisoning
(transmission)
*urine and fecal contamination of food and water
*asymptomatic carrier
*eating contaminated shell fish
Salmonella Food Infection
*24hr flu, food poisoning
(prevention)
*thorough cooking to kill organisms
*refrigerate food until eaten
Staphylococcal Food Poisoning
**roto rooter disease
(Ca)
Stapyhlococcus
Staphylococcal Food Poisoning
**roto rooter disease
(symptoms)
*nausea
*vomiting/diarrhea
*abdominal pain
*depressed temp and blood pressure
*gastroenteritis w/in 1-6 hours after eating toxin
*quick recovery
Staphylococcal Food Poisoning
**roto rooter disease
(Treatment)
non-specific
rehydration
Staphylococcal Food Poisoning
**roto rooter disease
(reservoir)
*human w/cut or lesion preparing food
Staphylococcal Food Poisoning
**roto rooter disease
(transmission)
ingestion of contaminated food
Staphylococcal Food Poisoning
**roto rooter disease
(prevention)
*sanitary techniques for food handlers
*refrigeration of foods
*1/2 hr boiling deactivates toxin
Botulism
*systemic
(CA)
Clostridium botulinum
(anaerobic)
Botulism
*systemic
(symptoms)
*blurred/dbl vision
*dizziness/nausea
*vomiting diarrhea
*symptoms w/in 12-36 hours after eating toxin
*if untreated, death from respiratory paralysis or cardiac failure
Botulism
*systemic
(treatment)
antitoxin
Botulism
*systemic
(reservoir)
*humans
*animals
*soil
Botulism
*systemic
(transmission)
ingest improperly prepared foods
Botulism
*systemic
(prevention)
*proper processing of acidic foods
*inspect unopened cans for "doming"
*10 min boiling = destroyed toxin
Shigellosis
**bacillary dysentery
(CA)
*Shigella dysenteriae (produces exotoxin incresing severity of symptoms
*Shigella
Shigellosis
**bacillary dysentery
(symptoms)
*vomiting/diarrhea
*nausea/cramps
*fever
*localixed large intestinal infection
Shigellosis
**bacillary dysentery
(treatment)
ABC
rehydration
Shigellosis
**bacillary dysentery
(reservoir)
humans
Shigellosis
**bacillary dysentery
(transmission)
*fecal contamination of water and fomites
*direct fecal-oral route
Shigellosis
**bacillary dysentery
(prevention)
*sanitary techniques for food handlers
*sewage control
*isolation
Diarrhea in Nurseries
**Traveler's diarrhea; Montezuma's revenge
(CA)
E. Coli
Diarrhea in Nurseries
**Traveler's diarrhea; Montezuma's revenge
(Sx)
Severe watery diarrhea, localized infection of newborns in hospital nurseries, epidemic & high fatality rate
Diarrhea in Nurseries
**Traveler's diarrhea; Montezuma's revenge
(Tx)
ABC and Rehydration
Diarrhea in Nurseries
**Traveler's diarrhea; Montezuma's revenge
(reservoir)
Humans
Diarrhea in Nurseries
**Traveler's diarrhea; Montezuma's revenge
(Transmission)
direct or indirect fecal contamination
Diarrhea in Nurseries
**Traveler's diarrhea; Montezuma's revenge
(Prevention)
PBH, sanitary techniques for hospital personnel, strict isolation, wipe front to back
Cholera
(CA)
Vibrio Cholerae
Cholera
(Sx)
rice soup diarrhea, severe dehydration and fatigue, difficult to get out of bed, rubber holes in cholera beds, nausea, vomiting, localized intestinal infection, death in untreated, epidemic LD₇₅, endemic LD₅_₁₅
Cholera
(Tx)
ABC, rehydration
Cholera
(Reservoir)
Human
Cholera
(Transmission)
Fecal contamination of water
Cholera
(Prevention)
Sewage control, boil drinking water, vaccine for those at risk
Brucellosis
**undulant fever
(CA)
Brucella
Brucellosis
**undulant fever
(Sx)
Chills and night sweats, increasing muscle weakness, fever, muscle aches/stiffness, weight loss, nerve damage possible, illness lasts weeks-months
Brucellosis
**undulant fever
(Tx)
ABC (taken for at least weeks)
Brucellosis
**undulant fever
(Reservoir)
horses. cattle, goats, sheep
Brucellosis
**undulant fever
(Transmission)
*ingestion of contaminated dairy products
*direct contact through cuts and abrasions of the skin
Brucellosis
**undulant fever
(prevention)
*pasteurization of all dairy
*domestic animal control (kill infected animals)
Poliomyelitis
**called infantile paralysis but strikes all ages
(CA)
1. Brunhilde Strain (24 hr fluish)
2. Lansing Strain (meningitis, no rash)
3. Leon Strain (systemic)
Poliomyelitis
**called infantile paralysis but strikes all ages
(Brunhilde strain Sx)
mild, non-paralytic strain, gastro-intestinal infection w/
*nausea, vomting
*drowsiness, headache, fever
*fast recovery
Poliomyelitis
**called infantile paralysis but strikes all ages
(Lansing Strain Sx)
non-paralytic polio, aseptic meningitis, stiff neck and back, 10 days to recovery
Poliomyelitis
**called infantile paralysis but strikes all ages
(Leon Strain Sx)
paralytic polio, attacks motor neurons causing paralysis (usually affects lower limbs), respiratory paralysis, slow recovery and damage is often permanent
Poliomyelitis
**called infantile paralysis but strikes all ages
(Tx)
non-specific
Poliomyelitis
**called infantile paralysis but strikes all ages
(Reservoir)
Human
Poliomyelitis
**called infantile paralysis but strikes all ages
(Transmission)
*ingestion of fecally contaminated water
*inhalation of airborne droplets emitted by infected person during acute illness stage
Poliomyelitis
**called infantile paralysis but strikes all ages
(Prevention)
Salk vaccine (killed virus)
Sabin vaccine (attenuated)
Viral Hepatitis
(CA)
*Infectious hepatitis - Hepatitis A virus
***food born, infectious 10-50 day
*Serum hepatitis - Hepatitis B virus
***blood born, 10-180 day incubation
Viral Hepatitis
(Sx)
anorexia, nausea, vomiting, pale gray feces, malaise then jaundice, bile in urine and hepatomegaly, residual liver damage after recovery, low fatality rate, adult infection is more severe than a child's
Viral Hepatitis
(Tx)
non-specific
Viral Hepatitis
(Reservoir)
human, some primates
Viral Hepatitis
(transmission)
(HAV) direct contact, contaminated food, water and fomites
(HBV) sharing needles, blood or organ donation
Viral Hepatitis
(prevention)
(HAV) vaccine, gamma globulin, prophalaxis
(HBV) vaccine, id blood donors, instrument sterilization
Enterobiasis
**pinworm
(CA)
Enterobius vermicularis
Enterobiasis
**pinworm
(Sx)
Perianal itching, restlessness, insomnia
(female crawls out, lays eggs externally, crawls back in to be fertilized again)
Enterobiasis
**pinworm
(Tx)
Chemotherapy
Enterobiasis
**pinworm
(reservoir)
Human
Enterobiasis
**pinworm
(Transmission)
direct contact
ova-contaminated fomites
Enterobiasis
**pinworm
(prevention)
*PBH
*upon diagnosis: household disinfection and chemotherapy combined
Ascariasis
(CA)
Ascaris lumbricoides
Ascariasis
**largest roundworm
(Life Cycle)
1. ingest eggs
2. larvae hatch in duodenum and enter bloodstream
3. Bloodstream carries larva to lungs up trachea where they are coughed up and swallowed
4. In small intestine, larva mature, reproduce and eggs are released in feces
5. Eggs are ingested...
(Tx: ingest chemical to create major peristalsis to squeeze them out)
Trichinosis
(CA)
Trichinella spiralis
(smallest roundworm)
**pork (humans = dead end disease)
Trichinosis
(Life cycle)
1. Eat infected PORK meat/muscle releasing the encysted larva
2. In the duodenum, larva grow, mature, and reproduce
3. Eggs hatch into new larva, entering bloodstream and lymph system
4. Larva then enter skeletal muscle where they are encysted.. stay here until eaten again
Taeniasis
**bf/pk tapeworm
(CA)
**Taenia saginata (bf)
**Taenia solium (pk)
Echinococcosis
**dog tapeworm/hydatid cyst
(CA)
Echinococcus granulosus (small tapeworm having only 4 segments)
Diphyllobothriasis
**fish tapeworm
(CA)
Diphyllobothrium latum
Taeniasis, Echinococcosis, Diphyllobothriasis
(Life cycle)
Taeniasis = bf/pk
Echinococcosis = dog/hydatid
Diophyllobothriasis = fish

1. Man eats undercooked, infected meat (beef) containing cysticercus (larvae) embedded in meat/muscle
2. Larva released and attached to man's small intestine walls
3. Larva mature, grow and reproduce in small intestine
4. Man defecates outdoors and eggs released in feces
5. Animal (cow) comes along w/in days-months and eats feces containing the eggs or vegetation contaminated with eggs
6. In the animals intestine, the eggs hatch, larvae invade intestinal wall and migrate to the skeletal muscles, where they develop into cysticerci. Can survive for several years in the animal
**need one human/one animal for cycle
**fish/pork/dog all replaced with cow
**prevent cycle with proper waste water treatment and cook meat thoroughly
General Symptoms for Salmonella
*diarrhea
*dehydration
*dysentery (blood, mucus, pus passage in stool)
*vomiting
Salmonella spread via:
*food
*fomties
*feces
*flies and other insects
Salmonella acquired most often from...
40% restaurant
30% nursing home
12% school
10% vacation
Three most common treatments for salmonella
*ABC
*Rehydration
*non-specific
Food born disease prevention
*PBH
*Thorough cooking
*proper refrigeration of food
*proper drinking water treatment
*drink pasteurized milk
*proper disposal of body waste
*vaccine
*isolation
*id caarriers
*inspect canned foods for botulism (domed ends)
Common refuge outbreaks
*Typhoid Fever
*Shigellosis
*Cholera