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45 Cards in this Set

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Virulence
degree of pathogenicity
LD50
lethal dose for 50% of the hosts
Streptococcus pyogenes has this on fimbrae to protect it from being phagocytized. It is acid and heat resistent.
M-proteins
This occurs when a sugar forms a cup. It can turn into a capsule or slime layer. It is anti-phagocytic.
Glycocalyx
What is the most common root of entry?
respiratory tract
These diseases are transmitted through the respiratory tract
common cold, pneumonia, tuberculosis, flu, measles, smallpox
These diseases are transmitted through the digestive system
polio, hepatitis A, typhoid fever, cholera
These diseases are transmitted through the reproductive system
STD's
A disease contracted parenterally was transmitted via
an open wound
Enzyme that breaks down connective tissue
Hyaluronidase
Enzyme that breaks down collagen
Collagenase
Enzyme that breaks down tissues, often RBC's
Lecithinase
Enzyme that breaks down fibrin
Kinases
Enzyme that promotes clotting, as a form of protection for the organism
Coagulase
This is an organism that produces collagenase
Clostridium perfringens
This is an organism that produces lecithinase.
Clostridium perfringens
This is an organism that produces coagulase
Staphylococcus
This enzyme destroys blood clots and is used medicinally for this reason.
Streptokinases
Toxin that breaks down white blood cells
Leukocidins
Name for White Blood Cells
Leukocytes
Name for red blood cells
erythrocytes
Toxin that breaks down red blood cells
hemolysin
Alpha hemolysis is
partial breakdown of hemoglobin
Beta hemolysis is
Complete breakdown of hemoglobin
Exotoxins are usually what type of substance
proteins
Most pathogens secrete:
exotoxins
This exotoxin is found in the digestive system, causes vomiting and diarhhea
enterotoxin
This exotoxin is found in the nervous system
neurotoxin
These exotoxins disrupt cells and cause blood vessels to dilate
cytotoxins
heat labile means:
destroyed by heat
Exotoxins have a ___ degree of specificity and a ___ degree of antigenicity.
high
high
An altered version of a toxin
toxoid
An antibody to a toxin
antitoxin
This is a cytotoxin that inhibits protein synthesis in the cells
diphterotoxin
These are the two parts of dephtherotoxin and their functions
Polypeptide A - active site which inhibits protein synthesis
Polypeptide B - binding site
This occurs when an organism receives a gene from a virus to make a toxin
lysogenic conversion
These can give a bacteria the gene to make toxins
Virus or plasmids
These dilate blood vessels and cause scarlet fever, scalded skin syndrome, toxic shock syndrome
Erythrogenics
This neurotoxin does not allow acetylcholine synthesis, which results in paralysis
botulinum
This toxin prevents inhibitory nerve transmission, resulting in muscles contracting without relaxation.
tetanospasmin
This organism releases botulinum toxin
Clostridium botulinum
This organism releases tetanospasmin toxin
Clostridium tetani
Orgamisms which secrete exotoxins are usually gram ____
positive
The five ways for antimicrobials to act on bacteria
cell wall
protein synthesis
nucleic acid synthesis
anti-metabolites
cell membranes
Rules to use antimicrobial
1) Selective toxicity to only the microbes
2) microbes do not become readily resistent
3) low hypersensitivity
4) soluble in body fluids
5) broad spectrums