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56 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Agents that kill bacteria are called
Agents that inhbit bacterial growth are called
Why does the autoclave work with steam instead of just heat?
the pressure and moisture, have better pentrating power than dry heat and less drastic temperatures are needed (121)
the time it takes to kill all cells at a given temperature is called
thermal death time
the time it takes to kill all cells at a given temperature is called
thermal death time
the time it takes to kill all cells at a given temperature is called
thermal death time
endospores are highly resistant to heat when they have a high concentration of ____________ and a low concentration of ___________.
Small acid-soluble spore proteins; water
True/False PAsteurization kills all organisms (sterilization)
UV radiation is useful in
sterilizing surfaces because it has a low penetration power.
Ionizing radiation is used to... How does it work? why is it dangerous? by creating hydroxyl or hydride radicals which degrade cells.
It strips electrons off DNA and multicellular organisms are more suceptible.
Radiation practices produce... which two isoptoes are commonly used.
produce gamma or X-rays. 60 CO and 137 CS
Depth fiters work by litteraly seperating organisms from liquid. what is the common filter used?
HEPA filters (High efficiency particulate air)
Depth filters vs membrane filters
membrane filters trap particles on the surface of the filter, while, depth filters trap particles within the filter.
Antimicrobial drugs are called... and they work on the concept of....
chemotherapeutic drugs... Selective toxicity.
Drugs that inhibit cell wall synthesis
Pennicilin, Vancomycin, Bacitracin, cycloseine, cephalosporins (most common drugs used)
Drugs that inhibit DNA gyrase
Quinolones (3rd most commonly used drugs)
Drugs that inhibit RNA elongation
Drugs that inhibit Folic acid metabolism
Trimethroprim and SULFONAMIDES
Drugs that inhibit cytoplasmic membrane structure
Daptomycin and Polymyxins
Drugs that inhibit DNA directed RNA polymerase
Rifampin and Streptovaricins
Drugs that inhibit protein synthesis (50 SUBUNIT inhitors)
Erythromycin (macrolides), Chloramphenicol, Clindamycin, Lincomycin
Drugs that inhibit Protein synthesis (30 SUBUNIT inhibiors)
Tetracyclines, Spectinomycin, Streptomycin, Gentamycin, Kanamycin, Nitrofurans
Drugs that inhibit protein synthesis
Mupirocin, Puromycin
Quinolines are Drugs that inhibit DNA gyrase. Why are the so useful?
they can be used against any bacteria, because all gram + and - use DNA gyrase (commonly given for UTI's)
Synthetic drugs
those made in the lab exclusively ONLY Sulfanilamides and Quinolones
All naturally occuring yet synthetically produced antimicrobial compounds are called
Betta lactam anitibiotics all have a
Betta lactam ring from which different substitutents are added making different drugs.
Betta lactam drugs inhibit cell wall synthesis but specifically they.
dont allow the CATALYSIS of the transpeptidation reaction to occur (cross-linkage of two glycan-linked peptide chains.
The transpeptidation enzymes bind to Betta lactam drugs and are therefore known as
pennicilin binding proteins (PBPs)
Alternatively to Penicilin, Vancomycin does not bind to the enzymes which catylize transpeptidation but to....
directly to the site of peptidoclycan precursors.
Cephlasporins another class of Betta lactam drugs work the same by hindering cell wall synthesis but they bind to PBP's irreversibly to prevent cross-linkage of....
Erythromycin is in the family of antibiotics called..... they inhibit bacterial growth by.... and are commonly used in patients who...
Macrolides; inhibit 50s ribosome; are allergic to pennicillin
Tetracycline is a (broad/narrow) spectrum antibiotic?
broad (very useful makesup 17% of the drug market)
Protease inhibitors function by.... they are most useful in treatment against...
inhibit processing of viral polypeptides and virus maturation; HIV
prevent viral multiplication by stimulating the production of antiviral proteins in normal cells.
Interferon (a form of cytokines)
a complete virus particle that consists of an RNA or DNA core with a protein coat sometimes with external envelopes and that is the extracellular infective form of a virus
All of the following occur in BOTH photosynthesis and resportation EXCEPT
a.) Synthesis of ATP
b.) establishment of proton gradient
c.) electron flow
d.) *splitting of H20 molecules
what are the products of the dark reactions?
ATP, NADPH and evolved O2. realize only ATP and NADPH are thus used in the dark rxns.
e coli cannot translate HIV because
HIV lacks a Shine Dalgarno sequence
Psychophiles can like in cold environments becuause...
their membranes are filled with UNsaturated fatty acids.
what is the main electron carier in anabolism
Oxygen (NOT NADH)
the capsid proteins of phages,
self assemble and protect the genetic material (they do NOT aid in lysogeny)
in ___________ respiration, reoxidation of NADH is coupled to the PMF
Anaerobic respiration
in a latent viral infection, the infection
re-occurs periodically
An animal virus that integrates into the chromosome is called a
PROVIRUS (not viorid or prophage)
which are componenets of tetracycline

1.) an inhibiot of bacterial protein synthesis
2.) bacteriocidal agent
3.) a disinfectant
ONLY # 1.
its not a bacteriocidal agent its a chemotherapeutic agent
its not a disinfectant (Toxic)
the specificity of the flu virus for binding to the host is mediated by _________
Drugs that may inhibit Athlete's foot include
Anti fungals or

Azoles and polyenes
HIV Facts
1.) mutation in gene for HIV protease can lead to drug resistance.
2.) the pol gene encodes reverse transcriptase
3.) HIV kills CD4 cells
4.) genome consists of 2 strands of +ssRNA
Antimicrobial agent taht inhibits DNA gyrase
71 for 15 sec or 63-65 for 30 minutes.
why are microbes used in the biosynthesis of cortisone?
the conversion of progesterone to hydroxy-progesterone is difficult by chemical synthesis... microbes facilitate.
Citrate production occurs in what organism? how can you increase the yield of citrate production.
Aspergillus Niger; lower iron content.
true/false in complementation the wildtype phenotype of a mutatnt is restored by back mutation
the genus of microbe that is most familiar with anitbiotic production
Which of the following is true?

1.) Prions cause diesease by producing mutations in the genes encoding normal prions.
2.) C-J syndrome is a spongform encephalopathy