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56 Cards in this Set

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halophile
bacteria that likes high osmotic conditions
What are common antioxidants?
Vitamin A, C, E
Selenium
superoxide dismutase (SOD)
enzyme that facilitates the reaction of superoxide and hydrogen into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide
catalase
enzyme which catalyzes the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen
Which enzymes do facultative anaerobes have?
SOD & Catalase
What enzymes do obligate anaerobes have?
No SOD or catalase
Aerotolerant organisms:
-dont't use oxygen
-have SOD
-will ferment
-have peroxidase
Microaerophilics:
either lack enzymes or have inefficient ones
Anaerobic cultures are grown on:
reducing medium (with Na thioglycolate), give e- to oxygen
pH for bacteria is best kept at:
7
these get carbon from CO2
autotrophs
these get carbon from other organic compounds
heterotrophs
these get energy from light
phototrophs
these get energy from chemicals that take e-
chemotrophs
plants do this process to obtain carbon
photosynthesis
CO2 + H2O -> CH2O + O2
photoautotrophs that cannot produce oxygen and are harmed by it
anoxygenic
These are anoxygenic organisms
sulfur bacteria
The pigment in sulfur bacteria:
bacteriochlorophyll
Green sulfur bacteria have these membranes that absorb light
chlorosomes
Purple sulfur bacteria have these membranes that absorb light
intracytoplasmic membranes
Chlorobium is a type of this kind of bacteria
green sulfur bacteria
Chromatium is a type of this kind of bacteria
purple sulfur bacteria
Sulfur bacteria use this process for obtaining Oxygen
H2S -> SO3(-2) -> SO4(-2)
These get energy from molecules like H2S, N2
Chemoautotrophs
Chemoautotrophs use this process to gain energy
N2 -> N2O -> NO2(-1) -> NO3(-1)
This grouping of organisms (means of obtaining light and energy) is the largest
Chemoheterotrophs
This group consists of funguses and organisms that breakdown dead organic matter (decomposers)
saprophytes
Complex media
illdefined media - not all contents are known
Defined media
mixture with all chemical compounds are known. Necessary for fastidious organisms
Enriched media
used for slow growing microbes. Increase small levels of desired microbes to detectable levels
Selective media uses this to allow specific cultures to grow
pH buffering, dyes
Differential media
indicator is put in the media to differentiate between organisms
Snyder test uses what kind of media
differential
Viable cell counts downsides
-have certain physical/chemical requirements
-takes time to grow
-form aggregates
How many colonies are wanted per plate in serial dilutions?
25-250
The final e-acceptor in aerobic respiration is:
Oxygen
The final e-acceptor in anaerobic respiration is:
inorganic substance (not O)
The final e-acceptor in fermentation is:
organic molecule
Another name for glycolysis
Embden-meyerhof-parnas pathway
Where does fermentation get its ATP
glycolysis
This process is anaerobic and produces 2ATP and 6Pyruvic acids
glycolysis
Homofermentative
examples:
organisms that only ferment lactic acid

streptococcus, lactobacillus
Heterofermentative
examples:
ferment lactic acid as well as other products

E. coli, Salmonella
Synthesis of lipids is important for bacteria because:
energy storage
mycolic acid
photosynthetic pigments
Methods of killing bacteria:
damage cell wall
change membrane permeability
damage proteins/enzymes
damage NA's
Organisms die at a ____ rate.
constant
Wet heat sterilize temp?
121C
Lyophilization
freeze-drying
Ultraviolet
non-ionizing radiation
260-270nm
bacteriocidal-causes dna/proteins to resonate, wobble and break. makes thyamine dimers
Radiation
ionizing radiation
splits apart atoms, makes free radicals
Bacteriostatic methods
cold, lyophilization
Thermal death point
lowest temp that all bacteria in a liquid culture will be killed in 10min
Thermal death time
length of time required to kill all bacteria at a given temperature
an organism that grows best in moderate temperature (25-40C)
mesophile
these are capable of growth and reproduction at very cold temperatures
psychrotrophs
these are capable of growth and reproduction at very hot temperatures
thermophiles