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77 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is oxidative phosphorylation?
Making ATP energy from the protonmotive force.
The protonmotive force works as...
an electrochemical gradient.
Describe the conditions in the periplasmic space.
Acidic and Positively Charged
Why is the electrochemical gradient a source of potential energy?
H+ cannot diffuse through the membrane.
Who won the Nobel Praice for oxidative phosphorylation chemiosmosis work?
Peter Mitchell
What does allow the protons into the cell?
ATP synthase and transmembrane proteins.
What two things does ATP synthase do?
Uses energy from H+ moving down electrochemical gradient and phosphorylates ADP.
What is the electron transport chain?
A series of electron carriers in the cell memebrane.
What does the electron transport chain do?
Oxidizes coenzymes.
What is the first carrier in the electron transport chain?
NADH dehydrogenase.
What happens to NADH and the first carrier in the electron transport chain?
NADH is oxidized to NAD+ and the first carrier is reduced.
What does NADH dehydrogenase do?
Reduces the next carrier.
What is the second carrier?
Flavin mononucleotide.
What else does NADH dehydrogenase do?
pumps H+ into the periplasmic space.
What happens to the electrons?
They pass through the electron transport chain.
What is the final electron acceptor?
What happens to the H+ after re-entering the cell?
It binds with the final electron acceptor (fea), oxygen to form water.
What are often the final electron carriers in the electron transport chain?
If cytochrome C is present, what happens?
Cytochrome oxidase catalyzes cytochrome C oxidation and oxygen reduction.
What does the oxidase test for?
Cytochrome oxidase
Why is the oxidase test useful?
It differentiates between Gram - rods
If oxidase test is positive what are you dealing with? Negative?
+ = Campylobactor (which causes food poisoning) and Pseudomonas.
- = Enterics.
Where do electrons come from for the electron transport chain?
What is catabolism?
Break down of molecules to generate reducing energy.
What four forms of producing energy are we comparing?
Aerobic/anaerobic respiration, fermentation, and chemoautotrophy.
What is aerobic respiration?
The catabolism of polysaccharides and monosaccharides, proteins and lipids.
What is the final electron acceptor of Aerobic respiration?
What is the equation for the Aerobic respiration of glucose?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 38ADP + 38PO4 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + 38ATP
What are the four steps of Aerobic Resipiration of Glucose?
Glycolysis, Transition step, [TCA cycle, Kreb Cycle, and Citric Acid cycle], and the electron transport chain.
What happens in Glycolysis?
glucose is oxidized to pyruvate.
What are the products of Gylcolysis and where does each come from?
2 ATP (2 used, 4 produced) during substrate level phosphorylation, NADH during the electron transport chain, and 2 pyruvates from each one glucose
What are the four steps of Aerobic Resipiration of Glucose?
Glycolysis, Transition step, [TCA cycle, Kreb Cycle, and Citric Acid cycle], and the electron transport chain.
What occurs during the transition step of aerobic respiration?
Pyruvic acid is oxidized to acetyl CoA.
What does CoA stand for?
Coenzyme A
What are the products of the transition step and where do that come from?
NADH from the electron transport chain and acetyl CoA from the Kreb Cycle.
How many times does the TCA cycle repeat per one glucose?
What are the products of the TCA cycle and where do they come from?
CO2, 2 ATP (one/turn of cycle)...GTP (guanosine triphosphate), and NADH and FADH2 (reducing energy) from the electron trasport chain
What is the first step of fermentation?
What is the second step of fermentation?
Oxidation of the NADH from glycolysis.
What is the final electron/H+ acceptor in fermentation?
Pyruvate or pyruvate derivative.
How much energy is generated in fermentation as compared to Aerobic respiration?
Where does ATP formation occur in fermentation and in what amounts?
Substrate level phosphorylation and in small amounts.
How much oxygen is used during fermentation?
Oxygen is not used, but maybe be present.
What are the end products of fermentation?
Gases, acids, and neutral products.
What does the combination of products depend on?
The fermentation pathway.
What accounts for the energy difference between fermentation and aerobic respiration?
Fermentation does not have the electron transport chain or the Kreb Cycle.
What does the fermentation pathway of a microorganism during fermentation depend on?
The type of microorganism.
How do we detect carbohydrate fermentation?
pH indicators, Durham tubes, Ex. Phenol-red lactose/glucose medium
When detected carbohydrate fermentation, what would yellow mean?
Acidic and that fermentation occurred.
Name four fermentation pathways.
Lactic Acid, Ethanolic, Mixed-Acid, and Butanediol fermentation.
When does lactic acid fermentation occur?
When muscles run out of oxygen.
The end products of Lactic Acid fermentation are either:
homolactic or heterolactic.
What do homolactic and heterolactic mean?
only lactic acid, and lactic acid + CO2, and EtOH respectively.
Give examples of lactic acid fermentors:
Streptococcus (dental cavities), Leuconostoc (Sauerkraut), Lactobacillus (normal human gut flora...digestion).
What are the end products of Ethanolic fermentation?
CO2 and EtOH
Give an example of an Ethanolic fermentor.
Saccaromyces cerevisiae (brewers and bakers yeast).
Is yeast a pro or eukaryote.
What are the end products of Mixed-Acid fermentation?
ethanol, CO2, and H2, and then acetic, succinic, formic, and/or lactic acids.
What test can be used to distinguish Mixed-Acid fermentation?
Methyl Red Test (MR)
What will the results of an methyl red test look like?
Because methyl red is a pH indicator, basic = yellow and acid = red (different from usual).
What two species can the methyl red test distinguish between?
E. coli (MR+) and Enterobacter aerogenes (MR-)
What are the end products of Butanediol fermentation?
Butanediol and CO2
What test can be used to determine Butanediol fermentation?
Voges-Proskauer test (VP test)
What is the problem faced by the Voges-Proskauer test? The solution?
Butanediol is neutral, so it tests rather for acetoin, a butanediol precursor.
Between what two microorganisms does the Voges-Proskauer test distinguish?
E. coli (VP-) and Enterobacter aerogenes (VP+).
Enterobacter aerogens and E. coli are quite similar and live in a common environment, why would we want to distinguish between them?
E. coli is a fecal coliform, a fecal pollution indicator in the environment that is the pathogenic Enteric that lives the longest outside the gut where as Enterobacter aerogenes is non-pathogenic and nothing to worry about.
What is the final electron acceptor of anaerobic respiration?
Something other than oxygen.
What are 3 differences between anaerobic and aerobic respiration?
different carriers in electron transport chain, more ATP produced in aerobic, the final electron acceptor is different.
What type of reaction is anaerobic respiration?
A reduction.
What type of reduction is anaerobic respiration?
Nitrate or sulfate reduction.
Demonstrate a sulfate reduction.
SO4 --> H2S
What are the characteristics of the Sulfate Reduction products?
Anoxic sediments that smell bad and are a black color.
Demonstrate the denitrification reaction.
NO3-->N2 (gas)
What is the source of most atmospheric Nitrogen?
Denirification of bacteria.
What is the nitrogen cycle?
N2 <--> nitrogen fixation by bacteria <--> NH4+ <--> NO2- <--> Nitrification by bacteria <--> NO3- (plants like this) <--> denitrification of bacteria <--> N2
Show the reaction of Methanogenesis.
acetate --> CH4 (a green house gas...absorbs heat).
What type of organisms undergo mathanogenesis?
Methanogens such as Archaea which are obligate anaerobes.