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48 Cards in this Set

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In microbiology, the term growth refers to:
an increase in the number and size of microbial cells.
A cell that uses an organic carbon source and obtains energy from light would be called:
photoheterotroph
A(n) ________ organism is one that requires oxygen for growth.
obligate aerobic
A(n) ________ organism is one that can live with or without oxygen.
facultative anaerobic
A(n) ________ organism is one prefers anaerobic conditions but tolerates low levels of oxygen.
aerotolerant
A microbe that grows only at the bottom of a tube of thioglycollate medium is probably a(n):
obligate anaerobe
A microbe that grows only at the top of a tube of thioglycollate medium is probably a(n):
obligate aerobe
A microbe that grows mostly at the top with a small amount dispersed toward the bottom of a tube of thioglycollate medium is probably a(n):
facultative anaerobe
A microbe that grows relatively evenly throughout a tube of thioglycollate medium is probably a(n):
aerotolerant anaerobe
A microbe that grows slightly below the surface but neither directly at the surface nor in the depths of a tube of thioglycollate medium is probably a(n):
microaerophile
What happens at temperatures higher than the maximum growth temperature for an organism?
Hydrogen bonds are broken, proteins are denatured, and membranes become too fluid for proper function.
What temperature classification are human pathogens considered?
mesophiles (20-40C)
What temperature range do thermophiles tolerate?
45C-80C. Requires temperatures higher than 45C.
What temperatures do hyperthermophiles require?
Greater than 80C.
What temperatures do psychrophiles require?
Less than 20C.
What type of microbial control is this: a public toilet is treated with disinfectants.
sanitization
What type of microbial control is this: a surgeon washes her hands before surgery.
degerming
What type of microbial control is this: heat is used to kill potential pathogens in apple juice.
pasteurization
What type of microbial control is this: an autoclave is used to prepare a nutrient agar.
sterilization
What type of microbial control is this: a nurse prepares an injection site with an alcohol swab.
degerming
An instrument that will come into contact with only the skin of a patient should be disinfected with a(n):
low-level germicide
What can be used to disinfect air?
HEPA filters and ultraviolet light.
Lysol is an example of what kind of chemical antimicrobial agent?
phenolics
What can be used to sterilize items that should not, or cannot, be exposed to heat or water?
ethylene oxide
A device that removes wastes and adds fresh medium to bacterial cultures in order to prolong the log phase of a culture is called a(n):
chemostat
Disinfecting agents naturally produced by microorganisms are:
antimicrobials
A chemical agent that kills pathogenic microbes in general is a(n):
germicide
Betadine is an example of which group of antimicrobial agents?
halogens
The method of obtaining isolated cultures that utilizes surface area to dilute speciments is called:
the streak-plate technique
A colony-forming unit (CFU) is the number of cells:
that produces one colony
Which of the following quantification techinques can distinguish living cells from dead cells in a culture?
a) microscopic counts
b) dry weight
c) metabolic activity
d) Coulter counter
e) turbidity
c) metabolic activity
Which of the following is NOT a direct method for measuring the number of microbes in a sample?
a) viable plate counts
b) turbidity
c) Coulter counter
d) MPN
e) membrane filtration
b) turbidity
What is found at the 5' end of a DNA strand?
a phosphate group
What is found a the 3' end of a DNA strand?
a hydroxyl group
What is the typical shape and location of bacterial chromosomes?
They are circular and found in the nucleoid.
T or F?: Bacterial plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate autonomously.
True
What kind of RNA is involved in translation?
mRNA, rRNA, & tRNA
The AUG codon functions in coding for the amino acid methionine and as a:
start signal
Semiconservative DNA replication means:
each daughter DNA molecule is composed of one original strand and one new strand.
T or F: Okazaki fragments are NOT longer in eukaryotic cells.
True
The proofreading function of DNA polymerase III results in an error rate of _______ during DNA replication.
1 error in 10 billion bases
What proccesses are involved in the "central dogma" of genetics?
transcription and translation
What are two examples of frameshift mutations?
deletions and insertions
If the codon AAA is changed to AAG, but still codes for the amino acid lysine, what kind of mutation is it?
silent mutation
What causes mutations by creating thymine dimers?
ultraviolet light
Adenine pairs with:
Thymine
Guanine pairs with:
Cytosine
In RNA, Adenine pairs with:
Uracil