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64 Cards in this Set

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What happens during phagocytic barriers? What proteins are involved the barriers?
1. PRR (pattern recognition receptor) on the macophage binds with PAMP (pathogen-associated molecular pattern) on the bacteria. PRR does not binds to eukaryotic cells, it's specific to bacteria. Binding of PRR with PAMP induces engulfment.
2. Phagosome fuses with lysosome to form phagolysosome. Phagolysosome contains anti-bacterial enzymes.
what are the 5 mediators of Innate Immunity
physical barriers
physiologic barriers
phagocytic barriers
inglammatory barriers
complement
Ag binds to ____ or _____
antibody or T cell receptor
the surface peptide of Ag where Ab binds to
Antigenic determinant or epitope
function of hemogglutinin of influenza virus
assist virus getting into cells
5 classes of human Ig. What Ig structure is the class based on?
A, D, E, G, M
constant region of the heavy chain
2 different families of light chain.
kappa and lambda
the function of J chain
connect >2 Ig monomers together
Which Ig form polymer?
IgA dimer
IgM pentamer
antibodies exist in one of 3 physical states
1. Integrated into the plasma cell membrane of a B cell acting as an antigen receptor. 2. Associated with Fc receptors on the surfaces of numerous cell types. 3. In a soluble form, dispersed in bodily fluids including serum and saliva.
3 immunologically privileged sites, no immunological rx occur here
brain, amniotic fluid, anterior lens capsule
sites where IgG, dimeric IgA and IgE are found
IgG: connective tissue, developing fetus
dimeric IgA: glandular tissue, digestive track, lungs
IgE: epithelial/mucosal surfaces
predominant Ig in serum and secretion
serum: IgG
secretion: dimeric IgA
effector functions of Ab
simple Ag-Ab interactions
interactions with accessory cells
interactions with accessory molecules
simple Ag-Ab interactions
neutralization of virus, toxins, bacterial cells
Fc-gamma are found on the surface on what cell types?
mast cells, macrophages, eosinophills, NK cells, neutrophils
dimeric IgA molecules are secreted by what types of cell?
B cells and plasma cells
phagocytosis can be carried out by what 4 cells?
neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells.
opsonization
Which type of Ab mediate opsonization?
get pathogens to be engulfed by phagocytic cells, by coating the Ag with Ab's.
IgG mediate opsonization.
what cell surface protein binds to IgA to facilitate its crossing epithelial cells to get into the gut lumen?
poly-Ig receptors
where does poly-Ig receptor binds to on IgA?
J chain
what's the function of secretory component on dimeric IgA?
stabiliza dimeric IgA in harsh conditions
secretory components are produced by what cell type?
mucosal epithelial cells
Antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxity (ADCC) involve which cells and which Ig? ADCC attachs both intra and extracellular pathogens.
cells: eosinophils and NK
Ig: IgG (viral infection) and IgE (parasitic infection)
function of IgE
involved in parasitic infection, allergic
function of IgG
protect the bodies against, virus, bacteria and fungi thru agglutinization, neutralization, opsonization and ADCC.
C3a, C4a and C5a, proteolytic complement fragments, are capable of inducing what?
inflammation
C3b and C5a acts as
opsonins by binding to specific receptors on the surface of phagocytic cells
C5, C6, C7, C8, and C9 (terminal complement proteins)
polymerize to form the membrane attach complex. This generates pores in the plasma membrane of the cell and lead to osmotic lysis.
end results of classical pathways (functions of complements)
1. opsonization and phagocytosis
2. stimulation of inflammatory rx
3. complement-mediated cytolysis
classical pathway are part of innate or acquired immunity?
part of acquired immunity
Mb-lectin and alternative pathways are innate or acquired immunity?
innate immunity
CD3, CD4, CD8 are found on T or B cells?
T cells
CD19 are found where
B cells
in the absence of interaction of T cell induced B cell differentiation, B cells differentiate into
IgM producing B cells
cytokine produced by T helper cell induce B cells to undergo clonal expansion and plasma differentiation to secret Ig. IFN-gamma, IL4, and TGF-beta (cytokines) induce B cells to secrete?
IFN-y: IgG subclasses
IL-4: IgE
TGF-b: IgA
skin graft rejection is mediated by T cells or B cells?
T cells
MHC Class I structure
alpha (1-3), beta 2-microglulin
extension of alpha 3 is inserted into PM
MHC Class II structure
alpha (1-2), beta (1-2)
alpha2 and beta2 are inserted into PM
what cells express MHC class I?
what cells express MHC class II?
MHC class I: all nucleated cells
MHC class II: B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, and activated T cells
in humans, MHC genes are referred to ____, located on chromosome _____, they are ____morphic.
MHC alleles are _____ expressed
human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) genes
chromosome 6
polymorphic
codominantly expressed
beta 2 microglobulin gene is encoded on chromosome ___
chromosome 2, beta 2-microglobulin gene is part of the MHC Class I
CD4+ helper T cells recognize peptides bound to Class ___ MHC molecules
Class II MHC molecules
CD8+ cytotoxic T cells recognize peptides bound to Class ___ molecuels
Class I MHC molecuels
professional Ag presenting cells are
cells that have both MHC I and II, and they are dendritic cells, macrophages, B lymphocytes and activated T cells
T cells only recognize proteins. T/F
T
Class II MHC pathway
endocytosis of extracellular protein -> degradation of the protein -> binding of degraded protein and MHC II -> presentation of peptide-MHC II complex -> CD4 T cell recognition
Class I MHC pathway
Cytosolic foreign protein degraded by proteasome -> binding of MHC I with degraded peptide -> presentation of foreign peptide -> CD8 CTL cell recognition
CD3 structure and function
CD 3 molecules are complex of 4 different proteins, trasmembrane and cytoplasmic domains and they are always associated with TCR. The CD3 function is to amplify signal transduction from TCR.
T cell antigen receptor (TCR) structure
T cell Ag receptor is composed of 2 heterodimer chains: alpha and beta, have transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain, glycoprotein. There are variable and constant region. variable region make the amino terminal end and constant region make up the carboxyl terminal end.
IL2 secreted by CD4 T cells bind to IL-2R on CD8 T cells
clonal expansion of T cells. Differentiate into CD8 CTL cells and memory CD8 T cells
perforin and granzymes
they are effector molecules of cellular immunity (CTL T cells)
perforin
creates pores on the PM of effected cells
granzymes
cleave caspases and activate them
Subsets of T helper cells
Th1 cell and Th2 cell
functions of Th1 and Th2 cells
Th1 cells: activates macrophages, induce B cells to produce opsonizing Ab's
Th2 cells: activate B cells predominantly to make neutralizing Ab, has effects on macrophages
cytokines produced by Th2 subset
IL4 and IL5, and they activates IgE for antiparasitic activity
IL10
secreted by Th2, suppresses macrophage activation or Th1 activation of macriphages
IFN-y
secreted by Th1 subset for viral infection. macrophage activation, induces B cells to produce opsonizing Ab.
In order for TCR activation to happen, TCR recognize two parts on the MHC molecule
1. polymorphic residue on the MHC molecule
2. presented foreign peptide.
2 step process of T cell activation.
1. a primary signal derived from the binding of the peptide:MHC complex by the T cell receptor.
2. secondary signals that are provided by co-stimulatory molecules expressed on the the surface of the antigen presenting cell as well as cytokines.
cytokines produced by Th1 (subset of helper cell)
IFN-y
cytokines produced by Th2 (subset of helper cell)
IL-4, IL-5, IL10
tumor cell rejection is mediated by
cytotoxic T cells