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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Give the order of actions in a Gram Stain.
prepared smear
Primary stain
How do antibiotics work?
What type of Bacteria is more resistant to antibiotics?
they attack the ability of a cell to synthesize new cell wall material (peptidoglycans)

Gram -
Where are hopanoids found and what do they do?
In cytoplasmic membrane.

they stabilize the structure
What kind of membrane proteins are hydrophilic throughout?
what type of membrane proteins are amphipathic?
Integral proteins
Describe the Pilus
longer than fimbrae
allows bacterial conjugation-- the transfer of plasmids from cell to cell
Describe the fimbrae
they attach bacteria to solid surfaces.

ex: dental plaques
How does the chromosomal DNA attach to the inner side of the cytoplasmic membrane?
by Mesosomes
Describe the Nucleoid/ Chromosomal DNA
1 chromosome per cell
contains essential genes & sometimes accessory genes
Chromosome must be unwound before replication/expression can occur
Name 4 cytoplasmic structures
Describe Plasmids
they are circular and contain non-essential genetic info. they DO carry genes though
What do Ribosomes do?
synthesize proteins// translation
describe endospores
they develop in dormant cells during unfavorable growth conditions
they protect against extremes of environment: UV, pH, chemicals, dehydration

they contain dipicolinic acid, unique to endospores. aids in heat resistance
what are inclusions?
Granuoles and Vacuoles formed for storage purposes?
What would be an example of a Complex Media for growing bacteria in the lab?
Nutrient Broth/Agar
Blood Agars

can contain meat or yeast extracts, or protein digests
What would be an example of a Chemically defined Media for growing bacteria in the lab?
one that contains pure chemicals like NaCl, Glucose, or MgSO4

THey are buffered to keep a neutral pH.
What would be the purpose of a Selective Media for growing bacteria in the lab?
Allowing the growth of only certain types of organisms while stopping the growth of others.
What would be the purpose of a Differential Media for growing bacteria in the lab?
to Differentiate the growth- i.e. biochemically

Doesn't inhibit any growth, though
What would be the purpose of a Selective AND Differential Media for growing bacteria in the lab?
Allows only some bacteria types to grow, and shows a distinct difference between them
What would be the purpose of Enrichment Media for growing bacteria in the lab?
To grow bacteria that need specific nutrients to grow,

i.e. vitamins, Amino acids, enzyme co-factors
Give 2 facts about Cyanobacteria.
Some do Nitrogen Fixation

they probably are responsible for much of the O2 intoduced to Earth's atmosphere
What type of bacteria makes up the majority of all bacteria? describe them
Heterotrophic Eubacteria, which are mostly decomposers. some are also producers (but not of organic carbon)

this grp includes pathogens as well as industrially important bacteria
Distinguish bt/W Spirilla and Spirochetes
Spirilla: Flexible cell walls
have flagella external to cell wall

Spirochetes: Rigid walls
have Axial filaments (start beneath the outer membrane)
ex: Syphilis and Lyme Disease
Describe Actinomycetes
This is a filamentous bacteria w/branching cell chains like a fungus.

they produce antibiotics like neomycin, erythromycin, and tetracyline
What are sheathed bacteria?
bacterial cell chains in a slimy sac/sheath. the Sheath protects it and allows attachment to surfaces.
What are Gliders?
Bacteria that produces a slime on the cell wall. It glides through the slime when the cytoplasmic membrane contracts in a wavelike manner.
Where do Bacterioids live?
in Anaerobic environments such as intestines(aid in digestion)
WHat do chemolithotrophs get their energy?
chem. rxns
they're imp. for nutrient exchange
Describe acid-fast bacteria.
They contain waxy Mycolic Acids in their walls, so they are resistant to Staining.

M. Tuberculosis
M. leprae
Who discovered the "filtered" virus while studying the Tobacco Mosaic Disease?
Who Expanded the work of another by diluting samples of the Filtered virus, and coining the term 'contagious living fluid'
Who formed crystals of the virus and said it was a chemical entity rather than a LIVING organism
Who used electron Microscopy to observe a rod structure?
What does an Isohedral virus look like?
20 equal Triangular faces
ex: polio, herpes, chickenpox, Epstein Barr
What's a Bacterial genome composed of?
DNA or RNA. Never both
Describe a Capsid's structure.
a Protein coat surrounding a genome.
it's made of capsomeres (protein subunits)
It maintains the virus's shape.
In viruses, What does the Envelope do?
It protects the virus, and aids in penetration of host cells by membrane fusion.

Present only in SOME viruses
In viruses, What are spikes?
They are Glycoprotein projections on the surface of capsids or the viral envelopes.

They are recognition sites to ID markers on potential host cells

can aid in penetration into host; enzymes help permeabilize the host.
Name the 6 stages of Viral Replication
Attachment [Spikes bind to potential host receptor cite]
Penetration [Naked viruses by phagocytosis, and envelope fusion by viruses w/envelope]
Uncoating [viral nucleic acid released into host cytoplsm, enzymes brk down the capsid]
Synthesis [Nucleic acid is replicated, host's ribosomes secrete viral proteins]
What do Antiviral drugs do to devend against replication.
they interfere w/ viral dependent DNA polymerases.

they prevent uncoating stage; this way, the actual nucleic acid is stuck inside the capsid
List and describe 2 Immune defenses to Viruses.
1. Host B (plasma cells) make antibodies, which bind to viruses that haven't attacked any cells yet. this prevents virus attachment to new host cells, and the viruses can become latent.

2. When cells are invaded, INTERFERONS come in and protect neighbor cells by non-specific interactions with viruses (they may prevent budding or penetration).

note: Interferons can be genetically and mass produced in the lab
What do vaccinations do? list 3 types of Vaccinations and describe them.
They cause a person to produce specific antibodies.

1. Inactivated- virus w/ genome destroyed, capsid intact

2. Attenuated (better than inactivated)- Weakened virus

3. Genetically engineered- purified virus proteins from a host cell
What are viroids? what do they do?
ssRNA w/o a protein coat. they only infect plants
What are Prions? how can they be broken down?
they are indestructable protein particles that cause diseases in animals and humans.

can only be destroyed by Proteases.
What is cancer?
an uncontrolled production of cells via Mitosis
What is a tumor?
a mass of cancerous cells, usually w/ abnormal shape, that have lost their function.
Distinguish bt/w a Benign and Malignant Tumor.
Benign- encapsulated by tissue and cannot spread.

Malignant- multiplied so fast they've escaped the protective tissue and can metastatize.
what is an oncogene?
genes that exist in the genome of animal cells and cause normal cells to become cancerous.
What is a protooncogene?
in normal cells, they aid in growth and mitosis of cells.
can be converted to Oncogenes thru carcinogen influence--> then tumor develops.
what are protists?

give 3 characteristics
a bunch of shit piled into one kingdom by default.

all are unicellular
can be hetero or auto trophic
most reproduce by asexual mitosis, but some reproduce by sexual
List the 4 main types of Protozoa
Amoebas (Sarcodines)
Flagellates- move by flagella
Ciliates- move by Cilia
Sporozoa (Apicomplexans)- don't move; intracellular parasites
List the 3 Sarcodines. what is a characteristic of these.

all have tests
they use pseudopodia to move
they feed by phagocytosis.
Describe Flagellates.
Flagella is arrangement of 9 + 2 microtubules (evidence of protozoa being a Eukaryotic ancestor).

many have chloroplasts for photosynthesis
Describe Ciliates.
Cilia surround the cyto-membrane.
the cilia move by a primitive nerve network in cytoplasm.
have 9+2 arrangement of microtubules

Ciliate cells have Macronucleus and 1 or more Micronucleui (unique to Ciliates) Both of these are involved in reproduction.
Give 4 characteristics of Sporozoa/ Apicomplexans
1. Mature cells are immotile while young move by flexing of cells
2. All members have a spore like stage
3. Have Apex (organelle complex) at one end of the cell.
4. All are parasitic to animals
What is the group of Protista that includes phytoplankton.
1. can have bioluminescent pigments
2. can have flagella in early stages
Unicellular algae
What are 2 similarities bt/w cellular and acellular algaes?
1. Both have cellulose in walls like plants.
2. Both have flagellated cells in some life stage.
What kind of algae produces Sporangia that bear spores? List one other characteristic of this algae.
Cellular Algae.
Cells are individual until resources are low; then cells form a 'slug' and move together.
What kind of algae produces fruiting bodies that bear spores? list one other characteristic of this algae.
Acellular algae
THey have a huge Multinucleate 'cell' that resembles an Amoeba; this is called a Plasmodium
Distinguish bt/w septate and coencytic fungus cells.
Septate means separated by a chitin cell wall.
Coencytic means non-separated
What is proof that Eukaryotes came from Prokaryotes?
Eukaryotic Mitochondria and chloroplasts contain rRNA whose sequences look like prokaryotic rRNA.
Mitochondria derived from Bacteria that infected ancestral Protozoan
Cyanobacteria invaded ancestral protozoan and developed into chloroplasts

these explain what.
Endosymbyosis Hypothesis
What are Woese's taxonomic groups called?
What is the peptidoglycan structure composed of, and how are the layers connected?
NAM and NAG units. layers are connected by tetrapeptide chains.

Tetrapeptide chains are connected by...
...interpeptide bridge in gram+
...directly in gram -
What are techoic acids, and where are they found?
they act as fence posts that anchor peptidoglycan layers to one another in Gram + cells.
What anchors peptidoglycan layer to the cyto-membrane?
Lipotechoic acid
Where are lipopoproteins found and what do they do?
Gram negative cells. they anchor the outer membrane to the peptidoglycan layer.
Where are Porins and Lipopolysaccharided found?
in Gram - cells