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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Food Poisoning
Disease: Food Poisoning
Organism: Salmonella enteritidis
S/S: fever, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea beginning 12 to 72 hours
Treatment: antibiotics usually not necessary
Prevention: proper handling of food items
Typhoid Fever
Disease: Typhoid Fever
Organism:Salmonella typhimurium
S/S: fever, chills, bouts of sweats, bradycardia, coughing, rash or "rose spots"
Treatment:antibiotics; chloramphenicol, military get vaccine
Prevention: education of proper handwashing -- fecal/oral; "Typhoid Mary"
Disease: Yersinia/plague
Organism:Yersinia Pestis
Treatment:Tetrycilcine, streptomycin, vacine to medical and family of exposed
Prevention: cleanlyness; carried by flees of rats, mice, squirrles, prairry dogs.
3 types of
Yersinia and how they differ
Bubonic plague: breeding in cells of blood; hangs out in Lymph nodes = 50-70% death
Septisemia plague: bacterium in blood stream; septic shock= 50-70% death
Pneumonic plague: infection in lungs; fast/quick death = 100% death
Disease: Shigella
Organism:Shigella dysenteriae
S/S: diarrhea, fever, nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, convultions and coma caused by Shiga toxins
Treatment: antibiotics; cipro, electrolites and fluid replacement. no vaccine
Prevention:hygene; typically via ingestion (fecal–oral contamination)
what is Shiga toxins?
Shigella bacterium produces a neurotoxin; Shiga toxins act to inhibit protein synthesis within target cells
Haemophilus influenzae
Disease: Menigitia
Organism: Haemophilus influenza
S/S: flu like symptoms, ear infections, coma, convultions
Treatment: HIB vaccine
Prevention: HIB vaccine in children; 6 mo - 4 yrs, 6% mortality of those % 30 to 50% mental retardation
Disease: whooping cough
Organism: Bordetella pertussis
S/S: cough
Treatment:antibiotics; arythromycin
Prevention:Vaccine DTP
and Burn infections
Disease: pseudomonas
Organism: Pseudomonas aeruginosa
S/S: typical cause of "hot-tub rash" (dermatitis), caused by lack of proper, periodic attention to water quality. The most common cause of burn infections; blue green pus - organisms grow under scab
Treatment: Cipro;
Disease: Walking pneumonia
Organism: Mycoplasma pneumoniae
S/S: mild resp. infection, low grade fever about 3 wks., head aches
Treatment: antibitoics
Prevention: infection caused by resp. droplets
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Disease: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Organism:Rickettsia Richettsae
S/S: fever, headache, 2-4 days later rash from distal to proximal of body
Treatment: antibiotics, no effective vaccine
Prevention: stay out of the woods; 5-20% mortaility, 1000 cases per year.
Disease: Typhus; human body lice
Organism: Rickettsia prowaskii
S/S: fever, rash
Treatment: general antibiotics
Prevention: bacteria in poo of lice, poo into skin, mortality 30% if untreated
Disease: Chlamydia; human eye and genital disease
Organism: Chlamydia trachomatis
S/S: painful urination, common asymptomatic PID. in eye; blindness if untreated
Treatment: antibiotics
Prevention: most common STD in the world; 3-4 mill. each year in U.S.
Elementary body vs.
Reticulate body
Elementary body: EB = infection accured, enters cell (oblicate intracellular parasite)
Reticulate body: RB = starts to divide
Organism: Treponema pallidum
S/S: dubbed the "Great Imitator"
Treatment: penicillin or other antibiotics
Prevention: sexual contact; congenital syphilis (transmission from mother to child in utero)
Lyme Disease
Disease:Lyme disease
Organism: Borrelia burgdorteri
S/S: "bulls eye" site of bite. fever, malaise, fatigue, headache, muscle and joint aches in large joints, sore throat, sinus infection
Treatment:no vaccine; antibiotics must be given ASAP
Prevention: don't get bit
difference between East coast and West coast Lyme disease?
East coast: high incedents of infection in mammels
West coast: effects lizards
Vibrio cholerae
Disease: Rice water stools
Organism:Vibrio cholerae
S/S: loss of fluids and electrolites (dysentary) 3-5 gls/day
Treatment: tetracycline; fluid/electrolite replacement, vacine available (not in U.S.) SHORT LIVED
Prevention: fecal oral contamination - also in some shellfish
Helicobacter pylori
Disease: gastric ulcers
Organism:Helicobacter pylori
Treatment:prevpak; prevacid & amoxicillin or triple-therapy (amoxicillin, clarithromycin and a proton pump inhibitor such as omeprazole).
Prevention:bacteria have been isolated from feces, saliva and dental plaque of infected patients, which suggests gastro-oral or fecal-oral as possible transmission routes.
describe shape of
rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever and foodborne illness.
describe shape of
Yersinia pestis
a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae.
describe shape of
Shigella dysenteriae
rod-shaped bacterial genus Shigella. They are normal inhabitants of the human gastro-intestinal tract and can cause shigellosis (bacillary dysentery). Shigellae are Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile bacteria
describe shape of
Haemophilus influenzae
non-motile Gram-negative coccobacillus
describe shape of
Bordetella pertussis
small, Gram-negative, aerobic coccobacilli
describe shape of
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Gram-negative, aerobic bacilli measuring 0.5 to 0.8, μm by 1.5 to 3.0 μm. Motility is by a single polar flagellum.
describe shape of
Mycoplasma pneumonae
Gram-positive bacteria and are fried-egg-shaped colonies on agar
describe shape of
Rickettsia Rickettsae and/or Rickettsia prowazekii
small, Gram-negative bacilli that are obligate intracellular parasites
describe of
Chlamydia trachomatis
obligate intracellular bacteria
describe shape of
syphilis treponema
helically coiled, corkscrew-shaped cells
describe shape of
Vibrio cholerae
cholera vibrios are Gram-negative, slightly curved rods whose motility depends on a single polar flagellum
Borrelia burgdorferi
Lyme disease,
Helicobacter pylori
Gram-negative microaerophilic,human gastrointestinal pathogens,diarrheal illnesses, systemic infection, chronic superficial gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and can lead to gastric carcinoma.
4 stages of syphilis
1) Incubation Stage: 2 weeks, organism multiply and spread through body
2) Primary Stage: initial genital tract lesion
3) Secondary Stage: skin rash, fever; last couple of weeks. disseminated lesions
4) Tertiary Stage:in approximately one-third of untreated individuals, cardiovascular and neurological problems
what is
soft, non-cancerous growth resulting from the tertiary stage of syphilis. gummas eventually undergo fibrous degeneration, leaving behind an irregular scar or a round, fibrous nodule.
what is Chancre:
painless ulceration formed during the primary stage of syphilis. transmit the sexually transmissible disease of syphilis through direct physical contact