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56 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
is Staphylococci gram - or + and what kind is found on the skin?
it is gram +, S.epidermis is found in skin flora
Describe staphylococcus aureus
Facultative anaerobe, grow well n skin, low moisture food, nose and throat.
produce toxins
may be carried on skin w no symptoms
What are plasmids?
circular DNA included in bacteria. self replicating. may carry the genes for toxins.
Name some conditions associated with toxins?
Scalded skin syndrome:common in children, lysogenic virus invades bacterium casuing lesions on skin
Toxic shock syndrome:toxin enters bld stream causing fever, vomiting, shock, rash
What are bacterial viruses called?
bacteriophages, bind specifically to bacterium, insert thier DNA
What are some conditions caused by bacteriophages?
Diptheria toxin
staphylococcal enterotoxin
Clostridium botulinum
Strep pneumoniae
Vibrio cholerae
Antibiotic resistance
Can be a result of the genes carried on some bacterial plasmids.
Bacteria can transfer this resistance via the plasmids
What are the major endocrine glands?
Pineal Adrenal
Hpothalamus Thymus
Pituitary Pancreas
Thyroid Ovary Testes
What can cause Hypofunction of these glands?
-Congenital defect/absence of gland
-Damage to gland ie infectn, <bld flow, tumour
-Aging:atrophy of gland
What is hypofunction of the glands?
-defective hormone synth
-hormone inactivn by antibodies
-defective receptors
-antibodies blocking receptor
-inadequate synth of 2nd msger
What can cause Hyperfunction?
-impaired -ve feedback system
-autoimmune antibodies mimicking hormones
-Hyperplasia of gland >ing hormone synth
-Tuomour (glandular/ectopic)
What are the hypothamlic hormones?
Corticotropin releasing hormone
Gonadotropin releasing hormone
Thyrotropin rel hormone
Growth hormone rel hormone
Prolactin inhib hormone
What are the efects of these hormones on the anterior pituitary?
Cortico: >andrenocorticotropic hormone
Gonado:>FSH and LH
Thyrotropin: >thyriod stim horm
GH:> levels GH
Somato: <GH secrn
What are the hormones of the anterior pituitary?And where do they effect?
Adrenocorticotropic: Adrenal cortex
Thyroid stim: thyroid gland
GH: most tissue
FSH + LH: ovaries + testes
Prolactin: mammary glands
What is hypopituitarism? what casues this?
< activity of anter pituit, < levels of ant pit hormones
Causes:Pit infecn
:Infecn(Meningitis, tubercul)
:Vasc malformn; aneurysm
Pit > vascularised, vuln to ischemia/ infarcn.
What is panhypopituitarism?
Absence of all ant pit hormones!!!
Caused by piuitary adenoma from cels of ant pit
Adenoma= usually benign tumour, may cause > secrn. ie:adenoma tissue secretes hormone without regulation
GH: Hyposecrn, what is the cause and what are the symptoms?
Cause: genetic mutation or tumours
Causes dwarfism
Symptoms: short, immature features, delayed puberty, fasting hypoglyc, normal intelligence
GH: Hypersecrn, cause and symptoms?
cause: GH secreting tumour
ACROMEGALY: occurs in adults exposed to > levels GH
GIGANTISM: > GH in children & adolescents
prim cause: Prolactin secreting tumour
Gonadotropin deficiency symptoms?
atrpohy of sexual organs or no development of them(pre-puberty)
Adrenocorticotroipc defeiciency
Usually present with generalised pit hypofn, not usualy isolated
results in: < gluconeogenesis+ hypoglyc
TSH deficiency
Usually present with generalised pit hypofn, rarely isolated
Disorders of posterior pituitary, which hormones are released from here?
Diabetes insipidus. Causes and symptoms?
Causes: < ADH prodn(neurogenic) OR inadequate response to ADH (nephrogenic)
Symp:ployuria, > thirst, dilute urine, dehydrn, >plasam osmo
ie cant keep up with >++ h2o loss
What is SIADH?
syndrom of inappropriate ADH secretion = >++ levels ADH
Cause: ectopic prodn ADH (assoc wi some forms cancer, secrn by tumour cells)
Symptoms: > h20 retention
Thyriod gland, where is it and what does it secrete?
it is inferior to larynx, rich bld supply
How does thyroxine effect the body?
> basal metab rate
> heat prodn
Tissue growth/devel
norm skel growth
NS reactivity
>HR + CO
Hypothyroidism, causes?
most common disorder of thyroid
< prodn T3 and T4 due to:
-iodine <
-defective horm synth from autoimmune destrn of thyroid
-congenital defect.
What is cretanism? what are some symptoms?
Congenital hypothyroidism.
Mental retardn
stunted growth
< metab rate
< body temp
<musc tone
myxedema of oral tissues
What is myxedema?
It is a characteristic sign of severe or long term hypothyroidism. result of altern in composn of dermal tissue, binds h20 = edema +
Symptoms of hypothyroidism?
NS depression
slow reflexes
< metab rate
<strok vol, HR and CO
<protein synth
What is Goiter?
caused by insufficient iodine in diet. causes hypothyroidism, = increase of TSH, stims > growth thyriod
Most common cause is Graves disease = autoimmune disease which stops norm reg systems
thyroid autoantibodies function like TSH, stim thyroid hormone secrn
What are the symptoms of graves disease?
> metab rate
> sweating, heat intolerant
pop eyes
nervousness, irritabilty
emotional instability
> catabolism
>HR, SV and CO
What does the parathyroid gland do?
secretes parathyroid hormone. Parathyriod hormone acts on tissue, bones, kidneys
to increase Ca levels.
What is hyperparathyroidism caused by and symptoms?
caused by -tumour - pararthyrd gland hyperplasia
too much Ca, increasd bone breakdown, kidney stones, > cardiac contractility
Hypoparathyroidism cause and symptoms?
Commonly caused by damage to parathyroid during surgery
<Ca but > Po4
symptoms: > musc/nerve excitability
< cardiac contractility
muscle spasms
What hormones does the pancreas secrete?
Alpha cells: glucagon
Beta cells: insulin
Type 1 Diabetes mellitus what is it and what can cause it?
pancreatic atrophy and loss of B cells. can be from autoimmune destrn of B cells OR from disease ie pancreatitis
Autoimm cause: mumps, epstein barr
What are the effects on the body in type 1 diabetes mellitus?
Lack of insulin, gluc cant enter cells, body must use another way to get energy. resulting in hyperglycemia, and ketoacidosis.
Symptoms Type 1 DM?
> urine, > thirst > hunger, weight loss, fatigue.
sever dehydrn, metabolic acidosis, electrolyte disturbance. treat w insulin injections (IDDM)
Type II diebetes (NIDDM) characterised by?
insulin present, but not enough.
casued by: < in B cells, insulin resistance in gluc metab, < insulin secrtd by pancreas
Causes unknown!!
What is insulin resistance?
tissues dont respond to insulin.
possibl causes: abnormal insulin molecules, < insulin receps, abnormal receps.
Chronic complications of diabetes
microvasc: nephron and retina probs
Macrovasc: coronary artery diseae, stroke, periph vasc disease
Describe microvascular disease
Disease of small BV charcterised by: thickening of capills, endothelial hyperplasia, thrombosis, < tissue perfusion
Hyperglycemia causes it, glucose gets bound to bld and tissues.
What is diabetic neuropathy?
poorly understood. loss of sensory and motor function, tingling, numbness, musc wkness, incontinence, sexual dysfn
Adrenal cortex what does it do?
secretes steriod hormones(cortciosteriods)
3 categories: mineralocorticoids(outer layer)
:glucocorticoids(middle layer)
:androgens(inside layer)
What are mineralocorticoids important for?
conrol of fluid and electrolyte balance
ie aldosterone! effects kidneys to increase water and sloute reabsorption, rel in response to < fliud volums
What are glucocorticoids for?
control of energy metabolism. target liver, muscle adipose to promote gluconeogenesis in liver, moblises fatty acids fro breakdown, and protein too.
What are Androgens for?
Supplement sex hormones. release stim by adrenocorticotropic hormone: sex drive in females, insig in males
What is hypercortisolism?
> ACTH secrn, Cushings disease
characterised by:Inulin resistance, musc/bone wasting, buffalo hump, collagen loss, immunu supprn, mood changes, easy bruising, acne, trunk obesity, moon face
Hypersecretion of adrenal androgen and estrogens?
caused by adrenal tumours, > ACTH secrn, defects in steriod synth
hypersecrn of estrogens Results in devel of femal sex characteristics
hypersecrn of androgens results in male devel
What is Addisdons disease?
Comlete/partial failure of adrenocrtical fn. all 3 fns lost (minerlocorticod, glucocorticoid, androgen)
commonly caused bu autoimmune destrn of adrenal cortex
symptoms of Addisons disease?
characterised by >ACTH levels with not corticoid synth/output
:wkness, anorexia, neausea, hypoglyceamia, hypotn, loss of sex characteristics
Adrenal medulla hyperfunction? (no known probs w hypofn)
caused by tumour of adr medulla.
: hypertn
:gluc intolerance