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89 Cards in this Set

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Some viruses, such as Human Herpes Virus 1, infect a cell w/o causing symptoms, these are called:
Latent viruses
latent viruses are present in cells as:
proviruses
an oncogenic RNA virus must have which of the following enzymes a)RNA polymerase b)Lysozyme c)Reverse transcriptase d)Dna-dependent DNA polymerase e) all of the above
C)Reverse transcriptase
Viruses that have reverse transcriptase are in the
Hepadnaviridae and Retroviridae families
A viral species is a group of viruses that
have the same genetic information and ecological niche
The most common route of accidental AIDS transmission to health-care workers is
needlestick
an example of a latent viral infection is
a) smallpox
b) cold sores
c) Influenza
d) Subacute Sclerosing panencephalitis
e) none of the above
b)cold sores
An infectious protein is a
a) retrovirus
b) bacteriophage
c) viroid
d) Prion
e) none of the above
d) prion
an envelope is required during which of the following steps:
a) Penetration
b) Uncoating
c) Adsorption
d) Release
e) none of the above
e) none of the above
Which of the following is necessary for replication of a prion?
pSc
A clear area against a confluent "lawn" of bacteria is called a
Plaque
The definition of lysogeny is
Phage DNA is incorporated into host cell DNA
Which of the following is not a method of culturing VIRUSES
In culture media (must have living cells!)
Restriction enzymes are
bacterial enzymes that SPLICE DNA
A eukaryote used in genetic engineering is
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
a source of heat-stable DNA plymerase is
Thermus aquaticus
If you have inserted a gene in the Ti, the next step in genetic engineering is
Inserting Ti into Agrobacterium
the reaction catalyzed by reverse transcriptase
mRNA->cDNA
An enzyme that cuts double-stranded DNA at specific nucleotide sequences
restriction enzyme
An enzyme that copies DNA to make a molecule of RNA is
RNA polymerase
salts and sugars work to preserve foods by creating a
Hypertonic environment
The term facultative anaerobe refers to an organism that
uses oxygen or grows w/o oxygen
which of the following is not used to determine metabolic activity
turbidity
a culture medium on which only gram (+) organisms grow and a yellow halo surrounds Staphylococcus aureus colonies is called a
selective medium and differential medium
The addition of what to a culture medium will neutralize acids?
buffers
a culture consisting of agar, human blood, and beef heart is a
complex medium
which is best to sterilize heat labile solutions
membrane filtration
what best describes the pattern of microbial death?
The cells in a population die at a constant rate
Which of the following substances can sterilize?
a) soap
b) Phenolics
c) Chlorine
d) alcohol
e) ethylene oxide
E. ethylene oxide
which is used for surgical hand scrubs
chlorhexidine
which of the following is not a heavy metal?
a) silver nitrate
b) chlorine
c) copper sulfate
d) mercurochrome
e) merthiolate
b. chlorine
which of the following does not achieve sterilization?
a) pasteurization
b) ethylene oxide
c) formaldehyde
d) autoclave
e) dry heat
a. pasteurization
What is a limitation of the autoclave
use with heat-labile materials
what is the least effective antimicrobial agent
soap
which concentration of ethyl alcohol is the most effective bactericide
70%
what treatment is the most effective for controlling microbial growth?
they are equivalent treatments
which could be used to sterilize plastic petri plates in a plastic wrapper?
gamma radiation
what is most resistant to chemical biocides
mycobacteria
which of the pairs is mismatched?
RNA POLYMERASE-makes a molecule of RNA from an RNA template
an enzyme that covalently bonds nucleotide sequences in DNA is
DNA ligase
Conjugation differs from reproduction because conjugation
transfers DNA horizontally, to cells in the same generation
according to the operon model, for the synthesis of an inducible enzyme to occur, th
substrate must bind to the repressor
Genetic change in the bacteria can be brought about by
a. mutation
b. transformation
c. conjugation
d. transduction
e. all of the above
e. all of the above
Transformation is the transfer of DNA from a donor to a recipient cell
as naked DNA in solution
An enzyme produced in response to the presence of a substrate is called
an inducible enzyme
which of the following is not a product of transcription
a new strand of DNA
Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
a. thermophile-growth at 37C
b. mesophile-growth at 25C
c. Psychrotroph-growth at 0C
d. psychrophile-growth at 15C
E. none of the above
A. thermophile-growth at 37C
During which growth phase will gram (+) bacteria be most susceptible to penicillin?
log phase
Which of the following is the best definition of generation time?
a. the length of time it takes for lag phase
b. the length of time it takes for a cell to divide.
c. the time it takes for nuclear division.
d. the duration of log phase
e. the minimum rate of doubling
b. the length of time it takes for a cell to divide
What organism is most likely to spoil a freshwater trout preserved with salt?
Halophiles
Which of the following is an example of a metabolic activity that could be used to measure microbial growth.
a. MPN
b. glucose consumption
C. standard plate count
D. direct microscopic count
E. turbidity
B. glucose consumption
An experiment began with 4 cells and ended with 128 cells. How many generations did the cells go through?
5
Three cells with generation times of 30 minutes are inoculated into a culture medium. How many cells are there after 5 hours.
3x2^10
Assume you inoculated 100 cells into 100 ml nutrient broth. You then inoculated 100 cells of the same species into 200ml nutrient broth. After incubation for 24 hr, you should have
the same number of cells in both.
which of the following is not used for the disinfection of water.
a. chlorine
b. copper sulfate
c. gamma radiation
d. ozone
e. none of the above
e. none of the above
A gene is best defined as
A sequence of nucleotides in DNA that codes for a functional product.
Which of the following is not a product of transcription
A new strand of DNA
An enzyme produced in response to the presence of a substrate is called
an inducible enzyme
the lac operon
produces inducible enzymes
DNA is constructed of
two strands of nucleotides running antiparallel
The rxn catalyzed by DNA polymerase
DNA->DNA
the genetic transfer of drug resistance from one bacterium to another often occurs by
conjugation
a bacteriophage is involved in genetic transfer between host cells during the process of
transduction
Which term refers to making a copy of
transcription
The uptake of foreign DNA from the environment by a bacterial cell is described as
transformation
Suppose you inoculate three flasks of minimal salts broth with E. coli. Flask A contains glucose, Flask B contains glucose and lactose, Flask C contains lactose. After a few hours of incubation, you test the flasks for the presence of B-galactosidase. Which flask(s) do you predict will have this enzyme
B and C
Obligate anaerobe has..
aerobic growth (-)
anaerobic growth (+)
catalase (-)
In order to look for bacteria that degrade petroleum, a culture medium containing crude oil, sodium nitrate, phosphate buffer, and magnesium sulfate is inoculated with soil. This medium is
enriched
You inoculate a glass of milk with three mesophilic bacterial cells, and then refrigerate the milk. How many bacteria will be in the milk after four generations?
0
S-S agar inhibits gram positive bacteria. On this medium, bacteria that ferment lactose produce red colonies and bacteria that do not ferment lactose produce colorless colonies. This medium is
Selective and differential
Martian soil is inoculated into a glucose containing medium. The radioactive isotope C14 is used in the glucose. After incubation for five days, which of the following would provide support for the hypothesis that there is life on Mars?
radioactive carbon dioxide
Treatment intended to lower microbial numbers on kitchen and bathroom surfaces, utensils, etc. to safe public health levels
sanitization
Destruction of vegetative pathogens
disinfection
destruction of removal of all forms of microbial life
sterilization
Destruction of vegetative pathogens on living tissues
antisepsis
Removal of microbes from a limited area such as the skin around an injection site
degerming
Which of the following is not an enzyme?
a. B-galactosidase
b. Coenzyme A
c. Dehydrogenase
d. cellulase
e. none of the above
b. coenzyme A
Which organism is not correctly matched to its energy source?
a. chemoheterotroph-glucose
b. photoheterotroph-light
c. photoautotroph-CO2
d. Chemoautotroph-Fe2
e. Chemoautotroph- NH3
C. Photoautotroph-CO2
How many molecules of ATP can be generated from the complete oxidation of glucose to CO2 and H2O
38
What is the fate of pyruvic acid in an organism that uses aerobic respiration
It is oxidized in the Krebs cycle
According to the chemiosmotic mechanism, ATP is generated when
protons are moved across a membrane
Which of the following is the best definition of oxidative phosphorylation
The energy released as carrier molecules are oxidized is used to generate ATP
A strictly fermentative bacterium produces energy
by glycolysis only
Which of the following is the best definition of fermentation
The oxidation of glucose with organic molecules serving as electron acceptors
Aerobic respiration differs from anaerobic respiration in which of the following respects?
The final electron acceptors are different.
Uses glucose for C and energy
Chemoheterotroph
which organism produces catalase and superoxide dismutase
obligate anaerobe
which enzyme catalyzes the reaction zHzOz->2HzO + Oz
Catalase
If you knew the sequence of nucleotides within a gene, which of the following could you determine with the most accuracy?
The primary structure of the protein