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87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
two diseases transmitted by inhalation fo asexual spores?
coccidiomycosis and histoplasmosis
treatment for superficial candidal infection? for systemic?
nystatin; amphotericin B
Southwestern US, valley fever
Mississippi and Ohio river valleys
rural Latin America
bird or bat droppings; intracellular (tiny yeast inside macrophages)
Captain's wheel appearance
states east of Mississippi River and Central America
big, broad-based budding
dimorphic fungi
mold in soil; yeast in tissue
on what do you culture fungi?
Sabouraud's agar
systemic mycoses can mimic what?
TB (granuloma formation)
what is cocidiomycosis in tissue?
treatments for mycoses?
fluconazole or ketoconazole for local infection; ampho B for systemic infection
what causes tinea versicolor?
malassezia furfur
hypopigmented skin lesions in hot, humid weather
tinea versicolor
treatment for tinea versicolor?
topical miconazole, selenium sulfide
what does cladosporium werneckii cause?
tinea nigra
infection of keratinized layer of skin; appears as brownish spot
tinea nigra
treatment for tinea nigra?
salicylic acid
pruritic lesions with central clearing resembling a ring, caused by dermatophytes
tinea pedis/cruris/corporis/capitis
mold hyphae in KOH prep, not dimorphic
tinea pedis/cruris/corporis/capitis
mold with septate hyphae that branch at a V-shaped (45 degree) angle
culture on Sabourauds' agar, stains with India ink?
cryptococcus neoformans
heavily encapsulated yeast, not dimorphic, found in soil & pigeon droppings
fungus ball
mold with irregular nonseptate hyphae branching at wide angles (>90 degrees)
mucor and rhizopus
in what type of patients is mucormycosis typically seen?
ketoacidotic diabetic and leukemic patients
fungi proliferate in walls of blood vessels and cause infarction of distal tissue; rhinocerebral, frontal lobe abscesses
mucor and rhizopus
yeast that causes diffuse interstitial pneumonia
pneumocystis cainii
how do you diagnose PCP?
lung biopsy or lavage
methenamine silver stain of lung tissue identifies what?
pneumocystis carinii
treatmetn for PCP?
TMP-SMX, pentamidine, dapsone
dimorphic fungus that lives on vegetation
sporothrix schenckii
cigar-shaped budding yeast visible in pus
sporothrix schenckii
treatment for sporothrix schenckii?
itraconazole or potassium iodide
bloody diarrhea, liver abscess, RUQ pain?
entamoeba histolytica
severe diarrhea in AIDS, mild disease (watery diarrhea) in non-HIV
brain abscess in HIV, brain defects (ring-enhancing lesions)
foul smelling, greenish discharge; itching and burning
trichomonas vaginalis
dilated cardiomyopathy, megacolon, megaesophagus
trypanosoma cruzi (Chags' disease)
African sleepign sickness
trypanosoma gambinse, rhodesiense
visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar)
leishmania donovani
rapidly fatal menigoencephalitis; swimming in freshwater lakes
appears as maltese cross on blood smear
trophozoites on wet mount
trichomonas vaginalis
cysts on acid-fast stain
trophozoites or cysts in stool (2)
giardia, entamoeba
transmission of entamoeba, giradia, cryptosporidium?
cysts in water
transmission of toxoplasma?
cysts in meat or cat feces
transmission of babesia?
ixodes tick
transmission of leishmania?
transmission of african sleeping sickness?
tsetse fly
undercooked pork tapeworm; larvae cause mass lesions in brain, cysticercosis
taenia solium (tapeworm/cestode)
eggs in dog feces when ingested can cause cysts in liver; causes anaphylaxis if antigens are released from cysts
echinococcus granulosus (cestode/tapeworm)
snails are host; cercariae penetrate skin of humans; causes granulomas, fibrosis, and inflammation of the spleen and liver
schistosoma (trematode/fluke)
undercooked fish; causes inflammation of the biliary tract
clonorchis sinensis (trematode/fluke)
undercooked crab meat; causes inflammation and secondary bacterial infection of the lung
paragonimus westermani (trematode/fluke)
larvae penetrate skin of feet; intestinal infection can cause anemia
ancylostoma duodenale (hookworm)
eggs are visible in feces; intestinal infection
asarcis lumbicoides (giant roundworm)
food contaminated with eggs; intestinal infection; causes anal pruritis
enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)
larvae in soil penetrate the skin; intestinal infection
strongyloides stercoralis
undercooked meat, usually pork; inflammation of muscle, periorbital edema
trichinella spiralis
in drinking water; skin inflammation and ulceration
dracunculus medinensis
transmitted by deer fly; causes swelling in skin (can see worm crawling in conjuctiva)
loa loa
transmitted by female blackflies; causes river blindness
onchocera volvulus
food contaminated with eggs; causes granulomas (if in retina leads to blindness) and visceral larva migrans
toxocara canis
female mosquito; causes blockage of lymphatic vessels (elephantiasis)
wuchereria bancrofti
parasite: brain cysts, seizures
taenia solium
parasite: liver cysts
echinococcus granulosus
parasite: B12 deficiency
diphyllobothrium latum
parasite: biliary tract disease
clonorchis sinensis
parasite: hemoptysis
paragonimus westermani
parasite: portal hypertension
schistosoma mansoni
parasite: hematuria, bladder cancer
schistosoma haematobium
parasite: microcytic anemia
ancylostoma, necator
parasite: perianal pruritis
outbreaks after cleaning chicken coops or exploring caves
what type of fungus is cryptococcus?
yeast, not dimorphic
cauliflower skin lesions; broad based budding yeasts
how do you diagnose trichinella?
muscle biopsy
RMSF-type symptoms plus berry-like clusters (morulae) inside neutrophils?
anaplsma phagocytophilium
what causes human granulocytic erlichiosis?
anaplasma phagocytophilium
asarcis lumbricoides, clonorchis seinensis, and fascida hepatica can all cause what?
bacterial cholangitis
what types of milaria have dormant forms?
p. vivax and p. ovale
species of malaria that can cause severe (cerebral) disease?
p. falciparum
malaria drug to prevent relapse caused by p. vivax, p. ovale?