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18 Cards in this Set

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Name the 2 obligate human mycobacteria pathogens.
M. tuberculosis
M. leprae
How does the interferon-gamma release assay work?
The patients lymphocytes are incubated with TB antigens. If the patient has been exposed to TB in the past, the IFN-gamma will be increased. IFN-gamma is detected by ELISA or by in-situ staining and counting cells.
What are the solid culture media for mycobacteria?
Lowenstein-Jensen
Middlebrook 7H11
DNA sequencing for mycobacterial identification targets what? (3)
16S rRNA gene
Hsp65
rpoB
What is the most common drug resistance in M. tuberculosis?
Isoniazid (9.1% of US isolates in 1991)
What genes are identified in isoniazid reisstance?
katG: a catalase/peroxidase, probably responsible for transforming isoniazid to an active drug

inhA: involved in mycolic acid synthesis, probably a direct target of isoniazid action
At what CD4 count does TB become a reactivation disease?
CD4 = 500
Which mycobacteria is niacin producing and nitrate reducing?
M. tuberculosis
Which mycobacteria is niacin and nitrate negative?
M. avium complex
Which mycobacteria is niacin negative and nitrate positive?
M. kansasii
Name 3 rapid growers. What does it mean to be a rapid grower?
M. fortuitum
M. chelonae
M. abscessus

Grows in 7 days or less
Which mycobacterium is associated with nail salons and foot baths?
M. fortuitum
In M. leprae infection cellular response results in ____ disease while humoral response results in ____.
In M. leprae infection cellular response results in LIMITED (TUBERCULOID LEPROSY) disease while humoral response results in LEPROMATOUS LEPROSY.
Which is the "tap water" chromogen?
M. gordonae
What special stains can be used to detect mycobacteria? (2)
Acid fast stain
Auramine-rhodamine fluorochrome stain

NOTE: on Wright-Geisma appear as ghosts
This mycobacterium is characterized by broad bacilli with cross banding.
M. marinum
This mycobacterium is characterized by bacilli with a shepherd's crook.
M. kansasii
This mycobacterium shows cording.
M. tuberculosis