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177 Cards in this Set

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List cellular characteristics that are common to prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
1. Cytoplasm 2. Cell membrane 3. DNA 4. Ribosomes
What do ribosomes do?
Synthesize protein.
What are two characteristics unique to eukaryotic cells?
Nucleus, organelles
List characteristics of life.
1. Growth and development 2. Reproduction and heredity 3. Metabolism (energy utilization) 4. Movement (response to stimuli) 5. Cell support, protection, storage - ordered structure 6. Transports materials in and out of cell 7.
Discuss the structures of the prokaryotic cell.
External - appendages (motility or attachment); glycocalyx (slime layer or capsule). Cell envelope - cell wall and membrane. Internal - cytoplasmic matrix, various internal structures. Flagella - function mobility (1. filament - single protein strand 2. inserted into curved hook or sheath 3. Held in place by basal body.)
What is the dif between a eukaryotic and a prokaryotic flagellum?
back & forth vs. 360 degrees.
What are the polar arrangements of flagella in prokaryotic cells?
Polar (attached at one or both ends) Montrichjous - (single flagellum) Lophotrichous - (tuft of flagella at one end) Amphitrichous - (flagella at both ends) Or peritrichous (which has flagella all over cell), or Atrichous - no flagella.
How do you detect flagella?
1. Electron microscope. 2. Flagellar stain (a type of differential stain) 3. Demonstrate motility (semisolid agar or hanging drop slide)
Define chemotaxis.
Movement in response to a detected chemical. (positive - moving toward or negative - moving away)
Where do you find periplasmic flagella?
Spirochetes.
Define periplasmic flagella.
Internal flagella - between outer sheath and cell wall; cell wrapped around filaments - twisting, flexing movement.
Define Pili and fimbriae.
Function in attachment to cells or surfaces, made of hollow tubes.
Discuss Pili.
just a few - connection to exchange genetic information - bacterial variation, but no new cell.
Discuss Fibriae.
Numerous - attachment. Need better definition.
Define cell envelope.
Complex layers external to cytoplasm - glycocalyx, cell wall, cell membrane.
Define glycocalyx.
Coating of macromolecules, protection and adherence. 1. Slime layer (loose, prevents dehydration). 2. Capsule (thicker and tightly bound to cell, sticky), contributes to pathogenicity.
Discuss cell wall.
Determines shape of cell, provides support, contains peptidoglycan. Exact cell wall composition can vary somewhat. Cell wall basis for some staining techniques.
Define peptidoglycan.
Structural sugar/protein that lends structure to cell wall.
Discuss gram positive cell wall.
Thick cell wall, Primary composition (peptidoglycan and techoic acids), Almost no periplasmic...
Discuss gram negative cell wall.
Thinner (less peptidoglycan) cell wall, larger periplasmic space, Outer membrane (contains lipopolysacchararides), soluble in nonpolar solvents. Acts as endotoxin. Often resistant to host defenses.
Discuss acid fast cell wall.
Have gram positive cell wall, mostly contain mycolic acid - wax, contributes to pathogenicity, difficult to stain (carbol fuschin best dye), Stain not removed by acid.
Give a couple examples of acid fast bacteria.
Mycobacteria, nocardia
What are the two domains that are Prokaryotes?
Archaea and Bacteria.
What is the cell wall main component in bacteria?
Glycoprotein
Bacteria domain contains the Eubacteria species.
Discuss the archaea types of bateria.
Vary in cell wall composition, lack peptidoglycan, composed of other polysaccharides or proteins, a few have NO cell well.
Discuss features of mycoplasmas.
They have no cell walls (sterols in cell membrane prevent lysis), Pleomorphic (showing extreme variations in shape).
Some bacteria loose cell walls.
L forms or L phase variants. Arises from mutation or treatment with enzymes or antibiotics.
What is a protoplast?
Gram positive cells that loose their peptidoglycan covering.
What is a spheroplast?
Gram negative cells that loose their peptidoglycan covering.
Discuss cell membrane.
Phospholipid bilayer with proteins in, on and through. Selectively permeable (transports nutrients in/wastes out. Mesosomes extend into cell to increase surface area. Site of almost all biochemical reactions, no membranous organelles.
List internal structures.
Cytoplasm, genetic material, Ribosomes, cytoskeleton,
What is cytoplasm (protoplasm)
Gelatinous solution, mostly water. SIte of biochemical reactions.
What is the genetic material in a prokaryote?
Single, circular strand of DNA (concentrated in nucleoid); plasmids (small, circular extrachromosomal DNA - outside genes that are carried on the outside that aren’t absolutely necessary for life).
What do granules or inclusions do?
Storage vesicles
What is the cytoskeleton?
network of protein polymers associated with cell wall - maintain shape. May influence cell wall formation.
Define pilus.
An elongate, hollow appendage used in transfers of DNA to other cells in cell adhesion.
Discuss endospores.
Survival structures, form under unfavorable conditions, germinate in favorable conditions (returns to vegetative cell), constant invaders of sterility, extremely resistant to destruction.
What are some examples of microbes with endospores?
Clostridium bacillus
Shapes of bacteria -
Vibrio (excessively curvy rods - spirillum are rigid, spirochete are flexible and have an axial filament.)
Bacterial cells are grouped by shape and ______.
Arrangement.
How do diplo bacteria arrange themselves?
pairs
How do staphylo bacteria arrange themselves?
clusters
How do strepto bacteria arrange themselves?
chains
How do tetrad bacteria arrange themselves?
packets of 4 cells
How do sarcina bacteria arrange themselves?
packets of 8-24 cells.
What is pleomorphism?
Vary in shape due to variations in cell wall structure.
What are palisades?
Fence-like arrangement. Cells fold together length-wise.
What are methods of bacterial identification?
Microscopic morphology, Macroscopic morphology (shape of colony), Physiological/biochemical characteristic, Chemical analysis, serological analysis, genetic and molecular analysis.
Classification of bacteria.
Difficult (few fossil records), no universally accepted method, oldest and best known is (Bergey’s manual of systematic bateriology) , phenetic system - first edition (based on cell wall composition, morphology, metabolism.
What is phylogentic classification?
second edition, based on recent genetic info. Changed from 2 domains and 4 phyla to 5 major subgroups and 25 phyla, each subgroup presented in a a separate volume.
What does volume 1 cover?
Domain archaea, most ancient members of domain bacteria, live in extreme conditions, cyanobacteria,
What does volume 2 cover?
Phylum proteobacteria, gram negative cell wall (escherichia, salmonella, heliocobacter), rickettsias (no cell walls), purple bacteria - protosynthetic.
What does volume 3 cover?
Phylum firmicutes, gram positive cell wall - low G & C content. Includes staphylococcus, streptococcus, clostridium, bacillus; Mycoplasmas (no cell wall).
What does volume 4 cover?
Phylum actinobacteria, gram positive cell wall, High G & C content (corynebacterium, mycobacterium, micrococcus), pleomorphic and branching cells.
What does volume 5 cover?
Nine phyla (may or may not be related), gram negative cell wall, anaerobic GNB, chlamydia, spirochetes (Borrelia, Treponema).
Discuss informal classification of bacteria of med. importance.
Use gram stain reaction - get GPC (gram positive coccus), GNC, GPB, GNB
What is a bacterial species?
Collection of cells sharing an overall similar pattern of traits.
Discuss subspecies or variants
Strains - differ from parent in structure or metaolism, types - differ in antigenic makeup, viral susceptibility, pathogenicity
What are some GPCs of medical importance?
Staphylococcus, streptococcus, enterococcus, enterococcus, peptococcus, peptostreptococcus
What are some GNCs of medical importance?
Neisseria, Branhamella, Moraxella, Acinetobacter, Veillonella
What are some GPBs of medical importance?
Bacillus, Clostridium (endospore formers), lactobacillus, listeria, erysipelothrix, propionibacteriu, corynebacterium, mycobacterium, nocardia (acid fast), actinomyces, strptomyces (branching cells)
What are some GNBs of medical importance?
Brucella, bordetella, francisella, pseudomonas, enterbacteriaceae (E. coli, etc), legionella, vibrio, campylobacter, haemophilus, ...
What are some Misc Bacteria of medical importance?
Spirochetes, ....
Discuss eukaryote - motility.
Cilia and flagella (used for motility, 9 + 2 arrangement - meaning no 360, but whip-like) flagella are longer, cilia are shorter.
Discuss eukaryotic glycocalyx.
Glycocalyx (polysaccharides, network of fibers, may be slime layer or capsule, protection adherence and signal recognition. Cell walls seen in algae (cellulose, pectin, minerals) and fungi (chitin)
Cytoplasmic membrane in eukaryotes.
Phospholipid bilayer with proteins in, on, and through; sterols found in eucaryoticcell membrane for stability, selectively permeable.
Discuss the internal structures within eukaryote.
Nucleus (separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane, Nucleolus-RNA synthesis, chromosomes are linear)
Discuss Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER).
Separates cytoplasm into “rooms,” site of enzyme attachment; sit of enzyme attachment (worktable); Smooth ER - site of lipid synthesis, rough ER - ribosomes attached, complex protein secretions (closely associated with Golgi apparatus.
What part of the cell produces lipids?
Smooth ER.
What part of the cell produces genetic material?
Rough ER
Discuss the Golgi Complex (Apparatus).
materials form Rough ER pass through Golgi vesicles for processing.
Eukaryotic flagella have ____ movement. Prokaryotic flagella have _______ movement.
whiplike - whiplike.
What is a cell vesicle?
A little package filled with needed things - goes where it needs and merges with appropriate membrane to deliver its contents.
Define lysosome.
Vesicles from Golgi containing digestive enzymes. They are for “breaking” or “eating” things.
Define dehydration synthesis.
Define hydrolysis.
Define apoptosis.
Programmed cell death. (all lysosomes programmed to empty at once)
Define vacuole.
Tupperware of the cell. Storing things until needed - food it will need later, waste products, pigments)
Define mitochondria.
Powerhouse of the cell. Site of glucose oxidation to form ATP - cellular respiration.
Define chloroplasts.
Site of photosynthesis. Take sun energy and build sugar for later use.
Mitochondrial DNA passes through ______.
Mother
Mitochondria and chloroplasts are associated with ______ and have their own ___.
energy, DNA.
What parts of plants have chloroplasts?
The green parts.
What two organelles are considered to possibly have one time lived as independent organisms?
mitochondria and chloroplasts.
What characteristics of the mitochondria and chloroplasts make them quite similar to individual organisms?
Have double membrane, contain circular DNA, Have 70S ribosomes, Capable of dividing independent of cell division
What cells have the highest number of mitochondria and chloroplasts and why?
Muscle & nerve - because they take the most energy.
Discuss the ribosome.
Non-membranous organelle; protein synthesis (large subunit 60S, small subunit 40S - combine together to make 80S?!?!) Ribosomes in cell are different from ribosomes within mitochondria.
Discuss cytoskeleton.
Microtubules and microfilaments, provide cell shape, allows for movement (in absense of flegella, etc), anchor organelles, transports organelles.
What are some common eukaryotic microbes?
fungi, protists (algae and protozoa), parasitic worms.
Discuss kingdom Eumycota.
Always fungus (sometimes a name will be similar if it has fungus-like symptoms), Yeast (round to oval cells), mushrooms, mildew, mold.
What is “myco”?
fungus or fungus-like.
Most fungi are multi or single celled?
multi
What fungi are single celled?
yeast
How do yeast reproduce?
asexually by “budding”
Define pseudohyphae.
Chain of yeast cells that result when buds remain attached. Clumping.
Define hyphae.
Thread-like cells that compose filamentous fungi (molds).
What is a mycelium?
The whole “body” of a fungus. form of body of mold, collection of hyphae.
What is the difference between septate and aseptate?
Septate has cross-walls, aseptate doesn’t (many connections, doors/openings throughout)
What is an absorptive decomposer?
Something (fungus) that grows on the food source and just absorbs all the food they need.
Define dimorphic.
Fungus that can exist as single cells or a form hyphae, depends on growth conditions.
Are fungus dimorphic or do they have only one form?
Both.
Define heterotrophic.
Cannot make their own food.
Why are fungi, etc. essential?
Because they breakdown dead things.
Define saprobes (saprophytic)
Feed off dead plants/animals
Where do fungi tend to live?
In nutritionally poor environments.
Define mycoses.
Fungal infections. (in animals, plants, humans - some are species specific - others are not).
How does fungal reproduction differ from other eukaryotes?
they are normally haploid, asexual reproduction (spores from mitosis), sexual reproduction - spores produced through fusion of two parental nuclei, Meiosis follows (haploid)
Define peritrichous flagella.
having flagella all around the cell.
Which type of cell has more peptidoglycan and less periplasmic space?
Gram positive cells
What are the phylum (divisions) of fungi?
Phylum I - zygomaycota, Phylum II - Ascomycota, Phylum III - Basidiomycota, Phylum IV - Chytridomycota, Phylum V - Deuteromycota.
Which phylum of mold produces only asexually?
Phylum V - Deuteromycota.
What are some common ascospores?
Histoplasma, Microsporum, Penicillium, Pneumo....
What are some basidiospores.
Most form mushrooms - Amanita, Claviceps purpurea, cryptococcus neoformans
Discuss Phylum IV (Chytridomycota).
Chytrids, primitive, don’t form hypae or yeast-like cells, prodcue flagellated spores and gametes, free-living in soil water, may plant and animal parasites (no parasites for humans).
What are identifying factors of fungi?
Grow on nutirtionally poor media (prevents bacterial growth), Macroscopic evaluation, microscopic evaluation, Characteristics (asexual spores, hyphal type, colony texture, physiology, genetic makeup, pigmentation)
What’s the difference between a primary and opportunistic infectious agents?
Primary will make anyone sick, Opportunistic makes you sick if over-exposed and under-immune protected.
What portion of crops are destroyed by fungus?
40%!
What are the beneficial characteristics of fungus?
Major decomposers of dead organic matter and mineral/nutrient recyclers. Mycorrhizae (symbiotic relationship with plant roots - increase water absorption), Source of antibiotics/vitamins/drugs, Used in food and beverage manufacturing.
What is the “junk drawer” of fungus?
Kingdom Protista.
Discuss algae.
A subkingdom under Protista. Photosynthetic, contain chlorophyll and other pigments, few are infectious, some produce toxins that cause illness if ingested or inhaled, “red tides”, plankton, diatoms.
Discuss protozoa.
A subkingdom under Protista. Heterotrophic, some parasitic, Classified based on motility (flagella, ...)
What is a protozoal cyst?
A mature but dormant stage of a protozoa’s life.
What is the active feeding stage of a protozoan?
Trophozoite. (Troph)
What are the classes of protozoa?
Mastigophora, Sarcidona, Ciliophora, Sporozoa,
Discuss mastigophora.
Flagellated, many species are parasitic - Pathogens: Trypanosoma, Leishmania are blood parasites. Giardia (intestinal, diarrhea), Trichomonas (vaginitis)
Discuss Sarcidona.
Pseudopods, few parasites (Entamoeba histolytica), Montezuma’s Revenge.
Discuss Ciliophora.
Ciliated, few parasites in this class, Balantidium coli - intestinal.
Discuss Sporozoa (Apicomplexa)
No organelle for motility, complex life cycles (sexual and asexual), Mostly parasitic. Plasmodium (Malaria), Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium.
Discuss Trypanosoma cruzi.
South & Central America, Chagas Disease, Blood flagellate, Transmitted by blood-sucking reduviid bug, Soon leaves blood for smooth muscle and cardiac muscle.
What is the “bug” responsible for Montezuma’s Revenge?
Entamoeba histolytica
What kingdom are Helminths in?
Animalia
Discuss Parasitic Helminths.
Identified by microscopic examination of eggs, shape and size of worm, presence of special structures, mode of reproduction, kind of hosts,
What class are flukes in?
Class Trematoda.
What class is tapeworms in?
Class Cestoda.
What types of things are in Phylum Platyhelminthes?
Flatworms (tapeworms, flukes)
What types of things are in Phylum Aschelminthes?
Roundworms - nematodes.
What are types of morphology in helminths?
Cephalization (definite head region - with extra nerve activity there), Some have organs and organ systems, Reproductive systems are more “well developed,”
Discuss life cycles and reproduction of helminths.
Complex with multiple hosts, most reproduction is sexual, produces eggs in protective shells.
What is Enterobius vermicularis?
Pinworm or seat worm (roundworm), Intestinal infection, Oral/fecal transmission, Simple, uncomplicated infection, Very common infection in children.
Who was Bergey?
He developed the oldest and best known classification system used for bacteria.
Define Sarcina.
A bacterial cell arrangement in which the cells form packets of 8-64 cells.
Define basal body.
Prokaryotic structure that holds flagellum in place.
Define “trichous.”
root meaning “flagellum.”
Discuss characteristics of viruses.
They are “infectious particles” Obligate intracellular parasites. Protein coat with surrounds Nucleic acid - DNA or RNA. Acellular. Ultramicroscopic (20-450 nm)
Define “capsid.”
the capsomere - protein coat surrounding virus.
Discuss virus “envelope.”
Cell membrane with protein spikes. These spikes allow attachment to new host cell. This envelope is used as a cell wall, but stolen from previous host cell. Some viruses are naked - protein coat with nucleic acid.
Define virion.
Fully formed virus capable of infection.
What does a capsid/envelope do?
Responsible for infective properties of virus. Contain proteins for attachment. Protect viral nucleic acid when outside a host cell.
Prokaryotic cells’ genetic information is always stored by:
DNA.
Viral genetic information is stored as:
DNA, RNA (not both), single stranded, double stranded, linear, circular or fragmented.
Define polymerases.
Puts nucleotides together to build DNA/RNA. (or catalyze for such)
What is a retrovirus?
One that must have host-specific enzymes already packaged within to be functional. They make DNA from RNA.
Discuss classification and naming of viruses.
3 orders, 63 familles, 263 genera. Family names end in -viridae. Genus names end in -virus. ot widely accepted - genus or common names used.
Discuss order of viral multiplication.
1. adsorption, 2. penetration/uncoating, 3. replication, 4. assembly, 5. release
What is viral “adsorption”?
Recognition of host cell (attachment)
What is viral penetration/uncoating?
Entrance of virion into host cell.
What is viral replication?
Copy and manufacture of viral components.
What cells do viruses attack?
Only specific ones, depending on virus type.
How are naked viruses typically taken into the cell?
Endocytosis.
How are envelope viruses typically taken into the cell?
They become a part of the cell membrane and empty contents within cell.
What are the steps of replication and protein production?
DNA viruses - DNA migrates to nucleus, directs activities of replication. RNA remains in cytoplasms and directs activities of replication.; mature virus particles assembled from pool of parts; capsid shell forms; nucleic acid inserted; enveloped viruses insert protein. Rlease (naked viruses cell lyses and dies, enveloped viruses - virus particles “bud” from cell membrane exocytosis. Takes more and more cell membrane.)
What is positive sense RNA?
translates directly.
Define CPE.
Cytopathic Effect. - Virally incduced damage to host cell, visible through microscope; Cell Death; Latent state (persistent infections); oncogenticity - causes host cell to transform into a cancer cell.
Define bacteriophage.
Viruses that infect bacteria. Well-studied, complex viruses, some show lysogeny. Dormant state - phage DNA becomes inactive prophage; Host cell not lysed - may reactivate.
What are some bacteria that are made virulent by viruses?
corynebacterium diphtheriae, scarlet fever, bivrio cholerae, clostridium botulinum
Cultivation and identification of animals viruses.
Require living cells - animal inoculation, bird embryos, cell or tissue culture
What is a prion?
proteinaceous infectious particles; small, highly resistant particles; spongiform encephalopathies. (Mad cow disease or Cruetzfeld-Jakob Disease) A possible genetic factor.
Define “viroids.”
Tiny, naked strands of infectious RNA. Plants only. Can find with probe using labeled complementary RNA.
Discuss detection and treatment of viral diseases.
Direct rapid antibody tests or checking cells for CPE. Treatments - antibiotics work on prokaryotic cells. Antibiotics work on prokaryotic cells, antiviral drugs more toxic to host. Interferon - a natural antiviral. Vaccines.
What type of culture method is best for isolation?
Streak plate.
What type of culture method is best for counting?
Pour plate.
Define agar.
Solidifying agent (with necessary nutrients included) culture medium. Melts at 100 C, solidifies at 40 C.
How do you know if a broth culture is positive?
It will appear cloudy or “turbid”.
One colony alone is a pure ______.
Culture.
What are three visual characteristics used to identify colonies growing on bacteria?
Colonial form (shape of colonies), elevation (flat, convex, umbonate), and margin (smooth or not).
What is the formula to determine the quantity of cells in a liquid or mixed culture?
number of colonies x dilution = # of bacteria per ml