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117 Cards in this Set

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What are the two categories of chemistry?
Inorganic (all elements, small molecules) and organic
Discuss Inorganic Chemistry.
small molecules, covalent or ionic bonds, carbon or hydrogen, NOT BOTH, water, acids, bases, salts
Discuss Organic Chemistry.
Carbon and hydrogen (hydrocarbons)- originally, they were thought to only come from living system. Large, complex molecules, contain covalent bonds only, (usually non-polar), most are macromolecules or polymers.
What are the macromolecules of life?
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic acids
What is our primary fuel source?
Carbohydrates
What is the most effective fuel storage?
Lipids.
What is matter?
Takes up space and has mass.
What are the three forms of matter?
Solid, liquid, gas
What is an atom?
Smallest piece of something that's still that!
What are the three subatomic particles?
Positive protons, negative electric, neutral neutrons
Atomic number is:
Number of the protons.
Atomic mass is:
Protons + neutrons.
What is an element?
Substance composed of only one kind of atom.
What is a compound?
Two or more different kinds of atom in a fixed ration.
What is a molecule?
Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.
Which elements don't typically form bonds?
Noble gases - those with 2 + multiple of 8.
What is valence?
Number of electrons in outer shell.
Discuss chemical bonds.
Depends on valence (# of electrons in outer shell), determines activity of atom, atoms combine to fill outer shell, outer shell full with 8 electrons (except first level which holds 2).
Discuss covalent bonds.
Sharing electrons in an effort to fill outer shell. May share 1-3 electrons. Non polar covalent bonds have equal sharing. Polar covalent bond - sharing electrons unequally, causes each end to be charged slightly differently.
Discuss ionic bonds.
Sharing so strong, it rips one electron away, now it's charged.
What is a cation?
An atom that looses an electron and becomes positive.
What is an anion?
An atom that gains an electron, becoming negative.
What is an electrolyte?
A salt dissolved in water that can conduct electricity.
Discuss hydrogen bonds.
Are weak chemical attraction between polar molecules. Polar molecules that contain hydrogen. Oxygen and nitrogen bond to hydrogen.
Discuss electron transfer.
Oxidation/reduction - cellular work requires energy. Energy is stored in chemical bonds and then released through electron transfer (redox).
Leo Ger
Losing electrons is oxidation. Gaining electrons is reduction.
Chemical equations a similar to:
Math equations. Reactants --> Products
What is a synthesis reaction?
Building - requires energy.
What is a decomposition reaction?
Taking apart - releases energy.
What is an exchange reaction?
Switching ingredients around to make new compounds.
What is a reverse able reaction?
Most are. Compound can change, then change back.
What is a solution?
Uniformly dispersed molecules. Chemical connection.
What is a solute?
Dispersed substance.
What is a solvent?
Dissolving medium.
Hydrophilic vs. Hydrophobic
Water-loving vs. Water-fearing.
Discuss pH.
Hs to do with the hydrogen ion concentration. A way of measuring the acidity or baseness of a solution.
What do proteins do primarily?
Structural and functional
What do nucleic acids do?
They store and release instructions/information for what the organism will be.
Discuss carbohydrates.
Atoms are C,H,O - (1)C(1)H(2)O, monomers=monosaccharide, glycosidic bonds --> polysaccharides, Functions as structural support, cellulose, chitin, peptidoglycan, agar - The storage/energy are starch and glycogen
Discuss Woese-Fox Classification system.
They replaced Whittaker’s 5 kingdoms with a type of super kingdom - archaea, bacteria, eukaria
Discuss archaea.
Methane produces, halophiles, thromophiles
Discuss bacteria
Blue green bacteria, eubacteria, chlamydias, ricketesias
Viruses aren’t in classification system because
They’re not true life.
Discuss Lipids.
Atoms are C, H, O.... neutral fat (triglyceride), Glycerol + 3 fatty acids. Ester bonds, function - concentrated energy source.
Discuss viruses.
Not cells, can’t appropriately classify, have separate classification system.
What are some other lipid molecules?
Phospholipids, Cholesterol, prostaglandins
Discuss phospholipids.
Glycerol + 2 fatty acids + phosphate, major component of cell membrane.
Discuss Cholesterol (Steroids)
4 carbon rings - membrane stability.
What are prostaglandins?
local hormones
Discuss proteins.
Atoms are C,H,O, N (most contain some amount of sulfur). Monomers are amino acids. Peptide bonds. Polypeptide folded into a specific 3-D shape (only a protein when shaped).
What are the levels of protein structure?
Primary - amino acid sequence (covalent bonds). Secondary - Hydrogen bonds producing pleated sheet or alpha helix (hydrogen bonds, too). Tertiary - folding based on other covalent, hydrogen, and ionic bonds, all twisted and held in shape by multiple types of bonds. Quaternary - 2 or more different polypeptide chains formed together to make larger proteins.
Define denaturation.
altering of protein shape - totally changes or destroys function.
What are enzymes?
They catalyze reactions - must recognize specific substrate.
What are antibodies?
Immune guys.
Discuss nucleic acids.
Atoms are C,H,O,N, P. Monomer is nucleotide - pentose (5 carbon sugar), phosphate, Nitrogen containing base. Function - info - genetic info storage and retrieval.
What are the nitrogen containing bases in DNA?
Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine, Adenine
Who discovered Double Helix?
Watson & Crick
What rule is DNA/RNA replication based on?
A-T, C-G pairing.
What are the nitrogen containing bases in RNA?
Adenine-Uracil, Guanine-Cytosine.
What is ATP?
Adenosine Triphosphate - the only energy a cell can use. All fuel used make ATP molecule. Adenine + 2 more phosphates
How does micro differ from biology?
The study of tiny living things - small life forms. Most not visible.
"What percentage of life is ""micro""?"
Almost 90%
Discuss the scope of microbiology.
Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi, Protozoa, Algae, Helminths (worms)
What a other connected areas to micro?
Immunology, epidemiology, food micro (dairy/aquatic, etc), agricultural micro,
Define epidemiology.
Study of infection spread and control.
Discuss microbial interaction with humans.
It's ubiquitous, involved in nutrient and energy flow, (photosynthesis by microbes, decomposition), Genetic engineering, bioremediaton (naturally cleaning up our own messes), pathogens and normal flora.
Discuss the types of microorganisms.
Prokaryotic cells (simple, no nucleus or other membrane bound organelles), Eucaryotic cells (more complex, nucleated), viruses (sort of alive... Not cells, 2 molecules? Just particles of protein + nucleic acid).
What does micro usually measure in?
Micrometer 10 to -6 of a meter (bacteria). Nanometers are 10 to -9 (viruses)
Discuss microbes.
Many are free-living, going around, obtaining nutrients from environment. Some are parasites - where one species benefits off host, host is harmed. Some species can exist both ways just fine.
Define hypothesis.
An educated guess.
What is a theory?
Beyond a guess... A way if thinking of something with. A lot of scientific weight behind it.
Discuss deductive reasoning.
Form hypothesis, then test. Measure consequences of each variable. Have control groups (where you didn't change anything). Sort data, form conclusion.
In order for results to be valid they have to be:
Reproducible!
If a theory is tested and seemingly proven over and over, you have a:
Law
What theories/things are Pasteur responsible for?
Theory of biogenies, Germ theory of disease, Germ theory of fermentation, Pasteurization. Immunology. Cleanliness in treating patients.
What is Semmelweis known for?
Hand washing.
What is Joeseph Lister?
Clean hands, sterile surgical tools, clean clothes. Asceptic surgery.
What was Koch known for?
Koch's Postulates. First to connect certain germs with certain diseases. Pure culture techniques.
What was Linnaeus known for?
Taxonomy - domain, Kingdom, phylum or division, class, order, family, genus, species. Dumb King Phillip came over for good spaghetti.
Scientific naming.
"Binomial nomenclature (two scientific names for each organism), (it avoids common names which may be misunderstood in various regions.) First part is the genus, second part is species. Always capitalize genus name. Second word is the ""Specific epithet"" and is not capitalized. Both words is always underlined or italicized."
Discuss Woese-Fox classification system.
They replaced Whittakerr's 5 kingdoms with a type of super kingdom - archaea, bactria, eukarua
Discuss archaea.
Methane producers, halophiles, thrrmophiles
Discuss bacteria
Blue green Bactria, eubacteria, chlamydias, ricketesias
Viruses aren't in classification systems because
They're not true life.
Discuss viruses.
Not cells, can't appropriately classify, have separate classification system.
What is matter?
Takes up space and has mass.
What are the three forms of matter?
Solid, liquid, gas
What is an atom?
Smallest piece of something that's still that!
What are the three subatomic particles?
Positive protons, negative electric, neutral neutrons
Atomic number is:
Number of the protons.
Atomic mass is:
Protons + neutrons.
What is an element?
Substance composed of only one kind of atom.
What is a compound?
Two or more different kinds of atom in a fixed ration.
What is a molecule?
Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.
Which elements don't typically form bonds?
Noble gases - those with 2 + multiple of 8.
What is valence?
Number of electrons in outer shell.
Discuss chemical bonds.
Depends on valence (# of electrons in outer shell), determines activity of atom, atoms combine to fill outer shell, outer shell full with 8 electrons (except first level which holds 2).
Discuss covalent bonds.
Sharing electrons in an effort to fill outer shell. May share 1-3 electrons. Non polar covalent bonds have equal sharing. Polar covalent bond - sharing electrons unequally, causes each end to be charged slightly differently.
Discuss ionic bonds.
Sharing so strong, it rips one electron away, now it's charged.
What is a cation?
An atom that looses an electron and becomes positive.
What is an anion?
An atom that gains an electron, becoming negative.
What is an electrolyte?
A salt dissolved in water that can conduct electricity.
Discuss hydrogen bonds.
Are weak chemical attraction between polar molecules. Polar molecules that contain hydrogen. Oxygen and nitrogen bond to hydrogen.
Discuss electron transfer.
Oxidation/reduction - cellular work requires energy. Energy is stored in chemical bonds and then released through electron transfer (redox).
Leo Ger
Losing electrons is oxidation. Gaining electrons is reduction.
Chemical equations a similar to:
Math equations. Reactants --> Products
What is a synthesis reaction?
Building - requires energy.
What is a decomposition reaction?
Taking apart - releases energy.
What is an exchange reaction?
Switching ingredients around to make new compounds.
What is a reverse able reaction?
Most are. Compound can change, then change back.
What is a solution?
Uniformly dispersed molecules. Chemical connection.
What is a solute?
Dispersed substance.
What is a solvent?
Dissolving medium.
Hydrophilic vs. Hydrophobic
Water-loving vs. Water-fearing.
Discuss pH.
Has to do with the hydrogen ion concentration. A way of measuring the acidity or baseness of a solution.