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26 Cards in this Set

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What is the genetic material in eukaryotic cells?

What are the membrane enclosed organelles in eukaryotic organisms?
linear DNA arranged in chromosomes within a membrane enclosed nucleus. The chromosomes are complexed with histones.

lysosome, Golgi complex, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and/or chloroplast.
What is the ribosomal composition of eukaryotic cells?

Do eukaryotic cells have vacoules?

Do they have a capsule?
80s, except for 70s in mitochondria and chloroplast.

Yes

No
What is present in the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells?

Describe their cell walls?

How do they move?

How do they reproduce and divide?
Sterols

present in algae, plants and fungi. Usually contains polysaccharides.

Locomotion: use flagella and cilia which are structurally
different for cytoplasmic streaming and/or gliding motility.

Cell division: mitosis and meiosis
Alage comes from the Latin word, “seaweed” and there are over BLANK# species.

Range from single cell to large multicellular aggregates. The multicellular can be BLANK feet long and weigh BLANK of pounds.

Ubiquitous, occur every where, including...

Symbiotic algae: live within plants and animals and serve as...

Algae are important source of BLANK and BLANK for humans in the Far East.
22,000

100; 100's

fresh and marine waters, soil, rocks, trees, plants and animals.

a source of oxygen and nutrients for these organisms.

protein and iodine
Single cell algae come in shapes such as...

Algal cell wall imparts BLANK and BLANK is composed of...
spherical, curved, and rod shaped

shape and rigidity

cellulose, polysaccharides, calcium carbonate, silica, and proteins
What defined structures do algae have?

What photosynthetic pigments do algae have?
defined nucleus, chloroplasts, and mitochondria

chlorophylls a/b/c, Xanthophylls, carotenes, phycocyanin, and phycoerythrin
How do algae reproduce asexually?

How do they reproduce sexually?

Some of these unions involve identical gametes: BLANK

Some involve male and female: BLANK

Some involve BLANK of BLANK, ie haploid and diploid during the life cycle of the organism i.e. “Sea lettuce”.
Mitosis, either through cell fragmentation or spore formation

Through Meiosis, where haploid cells (gametes) unite to form a diploid zygote

isogametes

heterogametes

alternation of generations
What are the six ways algae are classfied?

DONT need to memorize, just review.
1. Morphological and cellular organization.
2. Cell wall composition
3. + or -, flagella
4. Nature and type of pigmentation
5. Nature of reserve food products
6. Reproductive structures and method of reproduction
What is a phylum of unicellular algae that includes “golden algae and diatoms”?

The “golden algae” contain a yellow brown carotenoid pigment called BLANK.

Their cell walls do not contain cellulose, but do contain BLANK.

Diatoms look a little like a petri dish. These shells decompose to become BLANK BLANK.
Chrysophyta

fucoxanthin

silica

diatomaceous earth
What is the composition of diatomaceous earth? Where are four areas it is used?

Diatoms have silicates such as...

Some parts of the world have diatoms that are BLANK years old and BLANK feet thick
diatomaceous earth is 85% silica, 5% Na, 3% Mg, and 2% Fe

Used in toothpaste, cat litter, chemical spill cleanup, and dynamite

glass, granite, and sand

1000; 2700
BLANK is a division of unicellular algae that is represented by the dinoflagellates.

These include the “red tide” organism, BLANK BLANK, that occurs in the US in the Pacific coast, New England, and the Gulf Coast.

Some red tide organisms produce large quantities of toxins such as BLANK, which disrupt proper function of ion channels in neurons.

Shellfish are tested for this and other toxins produced like BLANK and BLANK.
Pyrrophyta

Karenia brevis

brevetoxin

saxitoxin and ciyuatoxin
What is a phylum of unicellular algae that lives in fresh water environments, lack cell walls, and have an outer pellicle?

What is the most common genus? What are their "stigmata" for?

This genus stores food as a unique polysaccharide called BLANK.
Euglenophyta

Euglena, which have special eyespots known as “stigmata” that act a light shield, sense light and respond to it.

paramylon
Chlorophyta is a unicellular/multicellular algae known as the BLANK algae.

There are BLANK# species in fresh and marine water.

They are considered the precursors of...

Describe their pigments and storage.
Green

7,000

Multicellular plants

They have chlorophylls a and b, and ß carotene.
Starch is the storage product and the cell walls are composed of cellulose.
Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta are unicellular/multicellular algae.

Describe their color, structure, etc.
Phaeophyta are brown algae that are structurally similar to plants.
They possess 3 structures: stipe, blade or frond (aka root, stem and leaf).

Rhodophyta are red algae that exist as multicellular organisms that constitute sea weed.
What are carrageenins and what/where does it come from?
They are extracts from a dark purple seaweed, Carrageen, used in food industry (ranch dressing), cosmetics, and pharmaceutical business.
Colloids (carrageen)
Were used for 100s of years after being discovered on an...

They are "thixotrophic." What does that mean?
They are used in ice cream, shakes, sauces, candy, and meats to...

Also used in commercial products such as...
Irish coast village

Thin under shear, thick when shear is removed; when it's thin it can be pumped

to provide texture

toothpaste, shampoo, etc.
Who discovered agar? Where is it extracted from (2 things)?

What are the subunits of agar?
Frau Hesse extracted from the cell walls of Gelidium and Gracilaria, which are red algae.

Galactose
Fungi (Latin: mushroom) are made up of BLANK# of species in BLANK environments.

They are considered to be BLANK since they live on non-living matter.

They are important in

Causes many diseases in animals and plant; BLANK% misdiagnosed.

Only 4-5 antifungal drugs because fungi are...

Fungal infections grow in body parts

Can't isolate as usual on a plate because fungi is BLANK.
70,000; extreme

saprophytes

industrial applications, baking, wine making, breweries

80%


eukaryotic so they are hard to treat.

that are poorly vascularized.

filamentous
Yeasts are BLANK, oval organisms.

What are they used for?
Unicellular

Fermentation (ethanol), biofuels, baking, and brewery.
Describe reproduction in fungi

What is the zygote called after meiosis?
They have sexual reproduction which occurs by the fusion of haploid gametes.


a dikaryon
An eukaryotic organism in hyphal, filamentous form is a BLANK.

An eukaryotic organism in unicellular form is a BLANK.

Both of these forms can be BLANK on a plate, and also exist in BLANK form. An example is BLANK.
Molds

Yeast

isolated; dimorphic; Candida
BLANK normally consist of filaments hyphae, branching structures, and in mass become BLANK. Typically the cell walls of these hyphae are composed of BLANK.

In some fungi, the hyphae consist of individual cells divided by BLANK. In other fungi the septa are absent; they are called BLANK hyphae.
Molds; mycelium; chitin

septa; coenocytic hyphae
What is the study of fungi? What are diseases caused by fungi called?

Where is candida albicans usually located?

What are 4 diseases/illnesses caused by it?
Mycology; mycoses

considered normal flora of the respiratory tract, GI tract, and in females the urogential tract.

1. "thrush": usually occurs in oral cavity (not a transmitted disease)
2. cutaneous skin infection
3. systemic candida infection: follows infections of the lungs, kidneys
4. vulvovaginitis: yeast infection
What individuals are susceptible to candida?

BLANK% of nosocomial infections caused by candida

BLANK biggest pathogen in ICU

BLANK powder used to treat candida (orally); if systemic, then use BLANK.
diabetics, AIDS patients, patients on antibiotics

70%

4th

Nystatin; amphotericinB
How do fungi reproduce?

Asexual reproduction occurs in the haploid vegetative growth phase through BLANK formation, via the tips of BLANK.

Different spores are formed. Describe the 4 types of spores.
Fungi exhibit both asexual and sexual modes of reproduction.

spore; hyphae

1. zoospores: motile and flagellated
2. conidiospores: non-motile
3. arthrospores: not resistant to harsh conditions
4. sporangiospores: a specialized reproductive structure.
How do yeasts reproduce?

How do yeasts produce asexually? Describe both types.

How do yeasts produce sexually? Describe it.
Have several mechanisms for reproduction: sexual and asexual.

Asexually:
1. In binary fission, the yeast increases in size, the nucleus divides, and 2 new cells result.
2. In budding, a new daughter cell arises from a bud from a mother cell.

Sexually: 2 haploid cells fuse to form a diploid cell.