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90 Cards in this Set

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Enriched media that contains 10% NaCl.
m-Staphylococcus Broth
Name the organism that prefers higher salt concentration.
Staphylococcus
What does the higher salt concentration do to other organisms?
Inhibits most other organisms
Name the components of Mannitol Salt Agar.
Mannitol, 7.5 % NaCl and Phenol Red Indicator
Mannitol, 7.5 % NaCl and Phenol Red Indicator
Mannitol Salt Agar components
What happens if the Mannitol ferments to produce acid?
The phenol red changes color from red to yellow.
Why does phenol red changes color from red to yellow?
Mannitol was fermented.
Staphylococcus Medium 110 (SM110)
Mannitol and 7.5 % NaCl
Mannitol and 7.5 % NaCl
Staphylococcus Medium 110 (SM110) components
Name the advantage of SM110 over MSA.
SM110 favors colony pigmentation by different strains of S. Aureus
Name the media that favors colony pigmentation by different strains of S. Aureus.
SM110 (Staphylococcus Medium 110)
These patterns differentiate microorganisms based on their reactions to blood.
Hemolysin patterns on Blood Agar Plates
Name the three hemolysin patterns.
Alpha Hemolysis, Beta Hemolysis and Gamma Hemolysis
Alpha Hemolysis, Beta Hemolysis and Gamma Hemolysis
Hemolysin patterns on Blood Agar Plates
Hemolysin pattern that has partial blood hemolysis and partial clearing around colony.
Alpha Hemolysis
Hemolysin pattern that has partial clearing around colony that appears green due to partial reduction of hemoglobin in blood.
Alpha Hemolysis
Explain why partial clearing around colony appears green in Alpha Hemolysis.
Partial reduction of hemoglobin in blood.
Hemolysin pattern that has complete blood hemolysis and complete clearing around colony.
Beta Hemolysis
Hemolysin pattern that has no blood hemolysis and no zone of clearing around colony.
Gamma Hemolysis
Name toxin responsible for Beta Hemolysis.
Hemolysin
Name the organism that always test positive during a Coagulase Test.
S. Aureus
Procedure includes inoculating small plasma tube with organism and incubating at 37 degree water bath overnight for this test.
Coagulase Test
After incubating inoculated plasma tube at 37 degree water bath overnight, the plasma becomes clumpy or solidifies. Is this a positive or negative reaction?
Positive reaction
Bacteria that caused plasma to clump or solidify is called...
Coagulase positive bacteria
Coagulase positive bacteria
Bacteria that caused plasma to clump or solidify.
Explain why Coagulase Test is valid for only gram + staph bacteria.
Some gram - bacteria can cause false positive reactions and clotting mechanism is not due to coagulase.
What is the typical appearance of S. Aureus on MSA plate?
S. Aureus turns yellow due to fermentation
S. Aureus turns yellow due to fermentation when grown on this type of plate.
MSA Plate
What is the typical appearance of S. Aureus on Blood Agar plate?
Beta Hemolysis (Complete blood hemolysis and complete clearing)
S. Aureus when grown on this type of plate
Blood Agar Plate
What is the typical result of S. Aureus in the Coagulase Test?
Coagulase Positive
Describe typical gram stain, cellular morphology and arrangement in Streptococci.
Gram Positive Cocci in pairs and chains
Name the organism that is gram positive cocci, in pairs and chains.
Streptococci
Biochemical test that is used to differentiate between Strep and Staph.
Catalase Test
In Catalase Test, does Strep test positive or negative?
Negative
In Catalase Test, does bubbling from hydrogen peroxide indicate a positive or negative reaction?
Positive
In Catalase Test, does Staph test positive or negative?
Positive
List the six (6) screening tests for streptococci.
1) Catalase Test
2) Hemolysis on BA plate
3) Bacitracin Test
4) Optochin Test
5) Bile Esculin Test
6) 6.5% Salt Tolerance Test
Name the type of Strep that completes Alpha hemolysis on BA plate.
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Name the type of Strep that completes Beta hemolysis on BA plate.
Streptococcus pyogenes
Name the type of Strep that completes Gamma hemolysis on BA plate.
Enterococcus faecalis
In Hemolysis on BA plate Test, what type of blood is used due to its consistent hemolytic patterns of Strep?
Sheep Blood
Name the test used to differentiate Beta Hemolytic Group A Streptococcus (BSA).
Bacitracin Test
Name the organism that causes acute pharyngitis.
Beta Hemolytic Group A Streptococcus (BSA)
What is another name for acute pharyngitis?
Streptococcus pyogenes
In Bacitracin Test, was is placed on an agar plate?
Bacitracin disk
In Bacitracin Test, what is the Bacitracin disk?
An antibiotic
In Bacitracin Test, what does the Bacitracin disk do?
Inhibits bacterial growth
In Bacitracin Test, how many mm constitutes a presumptive identification of Beta Hemolytic Group A Streptococcus (BSA)?
Zone of clearing of 10 mm or more around the disk.
Name the test that constitutes a presumptive identification of Beta Hemolytic Group A Streptococcus (BSA).
Bacitracin Test
Name the test used to differentiate Streptococcus Pneumoniae from other Alpha Hemolytic Streptococci.
Optochin Test
Name the only Streptococcus that is susceptible to Optochin.
Streptococcus Pneumoniae
In Optochin Test, what is the chemical name for the Optochin disk?
Ethylhydrocupreine hydrochloride
Ethylhydrocupreine hydrochloride is the chemical name for __________.
Optochin
In Optochin Test, how many mm constitutes a presumptive identification of Streptococcus Pneumoniae?
Zone of inhibition of 14mm or more around disk.
Name the test that constitutes a presumptive identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Optochin Test
Name the test that constitutes a presumptive identification of Enterococcus faecalis and Group D Streptococcus.
Bile Esculin Test
Name the test that hydrolyzes esculin (glycoside composed of esculetin and glucose).
Bile Esculin Test
In Bile Esculin Test, what does esculetin react with?
An indicator (ferric citrate)
In Bile Esculin Test, describe end result when esculetin reacts with indicator (ferric citrate).
Form a dark brown phenolic iron complex
Name the test that forms a dark brown phenolic iron complex.
Bile Esculin Test
In Bile Esculin Test, do Enterococcus faecalis and Group D Streptococcus grow well on this slant?
Yes
In Bile Esculin Test, is a slant that is more than half dark considered to be positive or negative.
Positive
Name the test based on the ability of Enterococcus faecalis and Group B Streptococcus to grow in 6.5% salt broth.
Salt Tolerance Test
In Salt Tolerance Test, state if turbidity (yellow discoloration) is positive or negative.
Positive
In Salt Tolerance Test, describe a positive result.
Turbidity (yellow discoloration)
Name the test that runs side by side with Bile Esculin Test.
Salt Tolerance Test
Name the three selective differential media for isolation.
1) MacConkey Agar
2) TSI Slant
3) Urea Broth
Name the six gram - intestinal pathogens.
1) Salmonella
2) Shigella
3) Escherichia
4) Enterobacter
5) Proteus
6) Pseudomonas
What is the fermentation characteristic that separates Salmonella and Shigella from Coliforms?
Inability to ferment lactose
Name the intestinal pathogens that cannot ferment lactose.
Salmonella & Shigella
Intestinal pathogens that ferment lactose on MacConky Agar Plate produce what color?
Red/Black
Intestinal pathogens that do not ferment lactose on MacConky Agar Plate produce what color?
No color
Intestinal pathogens that ferment both glucose and lactose on a TSI Slant produce what color?
Yellow
Name the intestinal pathogens that produce ALL yellow color on a TSI Slant.
Coliforms
Intestinal pathogens that ferment glucose and not lactose on a TSI Slant produce what colors?
Red Slant/Yellow Butt
Name the intestinal pathogens that produce a red slant and yellow butt on a TSI Slant.
Salmonella, Shigella and Proteus
Intestinal pathogens that do not ferment both glucose and lactose on a TSI Slant produce what colors?
Red
Name the intestinal pathogens that produce ALL red color on a TSI Slant.
Pseudomonas
Intestinal pathogens that produce a black precipitate is evidence for what?
Hydrogen Sulfide production
Name the intestinal pathogens that produce hydrogen sulfide.
Salmonella and Proteus
Name the enzyme that intestinal pathogens contain for Hydrogen Sulfide production.
Cystein Desulferase
Intestinal pathogens that produce a hot pink color in urease deems them positive or negative?
Positive
Name the intestinal pathogens that are positive for urease.
Proteus
Name the intestinal pathogens that are negative for urease.
Coliforms
Name the 3 reaction patterns seen on media for intestinal pathogens.
1) Test for glucose/lactose fermentation
2) Test for Hydrogen Sulfide production
3) Test for Gas production
Describe how gas production can be determined for intestinal pathogens.
Cracks and lifting of slant (from bottom of tube)
Name the components of Triple Sugar Iron Agar.
Iron Salts, Glucose and Lactose
When medium turns yellow during the 1st part of incubation period of intestinal pathogens, it then changes to red later due to increased alkalinity. What is this called?
Alkaline reversion
Describe Alkaline Reversion.
Medium turns yellow during 1st incubation, then turns red due to increased alkalinity.