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154 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the chemisty of living cells
biochemistry
study of compounds that contain carbon
organic chemistry
all other chemical reactions
inorganic chemistry
C-C
single bond, the carbon atoms share one pair of electrons
C=C
double bond, the carbon atoms share two pair of electrons
-
C = C
triple bond , carbon atoms share three pairs of electrons
study of matter
chemistry
large molecules that include carbs,lipids,proteins,and nucleic acids,RNA,DNa
macromolecules
has mass,occupies spaces
matter
Macromolecules become...
Molecules
nucleotides glycerol
fatty acid
aminoacids
monosaccharides
molecules
glucose is a what type of molecule?
monosaccharide
water, sulfide, carbon, ammonia,phoshates
inorganic molecules
molecules become....
inorganic molecues
carbon,hydrogen,oxygen,nitrogen,sulfer,phosphorus

HINT: CHONS
atoms
lrg amt of energy to break them, atom share pairs of electrons
covalent bond
molecule with greater than one kind of atom?
compound (atom playing w/ friend)
tho or more atoms bonded together is a?
molecules (atom playing with twin)
protons and neutrons make up the ? in atoms
nucleus
electrons make up the ? which are spherical shape in atoms
shells
how many electrons can be in the atoms outer shell?
8
postive charge ions
cation
negative charge ions
anion
atom that either gains or loses an electron
ionic bond
lost of gained electrons, are no longer neutral, they become electrically charged and become?
Ions
total # of neutrons & protons each value of 1
atomic weight

(electrons don't effect atomic wt)
number of protons in the nucleus makes up what?
the atomic weight
atoms of same element,
identical chemical charcteristics,different atomic wt (diff # of neutrons)
isotopes
holds two amino acids together to form protein
peptide bonds
glycosidic bonds?
sugar group
hydrogen atom that is bonded to Oxygen & nitrogen of another molecule
are week compared to covalent and ionic bonds
hydrogen bond
most abundant molecule in cells,70to80%=mass of cell, essentatial for all life
water
liquid in which molecules are dissolved
solvent
dissolved substance
solute
combination of solvent and solute
solution
molecules adhere easily. Water can move easily between cells
polarity
break down lrg macromolecules
hydrolysis
sythesis by removal of water
dehydration
pH measures?
PH scale goes from ? to ?
acidity

0-14 0 most acidic
14 most alkaline
pH of blood?
water?
7.35 to 7.45 blood
7 water neutral
pH of cells?
baking soda?
6.8 cells
9 alkaline
regulation of pH in the body?
repiratory system-breathing exhale of CO2
kidneys-excretion of HCO3 peeing
carbon compounds are what kind of bonds?

all organic chemistry is based on this?
covalent bonds
4 main groups of organic compounds?
carbs,
lipids,
proteins
neuclic acids
carbs are composed of?

margere cho cause she's fat
carbon,hydrogen and oxygen

ration 1:2:1
sugars that can't be broken down any further?
monosaccarides

"simple sugars"
3 types of monosaccarides
glucose,fructose,galactose
main source of energy for body cells
glucose
conbination of 2 monsaccarides minus the loss of H2O molecule?
disaccharide

"double sugar"
to take a molecule of water. Chemical reaction is called?
dehydration synthesis
lrg molecule made of 100's of glucose molecules? its function is to store energy?
polysaccharides

animals=glycogen
plant=starch
collecton of many similar repeating molecules which form a larger molecule
polymer
additon of water to molecule this chemical reaction is called?
hydrolysis
cell takes up uses it for energy with O2 present?
Glycolysis

(break it down use it)
glucose not used by cell, converto to glycogen in liver for later use?
Glycogenisis

(store it)
blood sugar falls liver makes glycogen to glucose?
Glycogenolysis

(get it out of storage)
liver will form glucose from non carb substance? body uses protein or fats
Gluconeogenesis

(obtain new source from non carb)
made of Carbs,Hydrogen,and Oxygen
Lipids
lipids are composed of maily?

hint: lipids are fowl? f.o.w.
fats,oils,waxes

room temp:fats=solids, oils=liquids
serves as reservoir supply of food, nessary to manufacture hormones,used when glucose not avail.
lipids
better source of energy than carbs but harder to oxidize?
lipids
if it ends in -ase it's a?
enzyme
fatty tissue, that provides insulator tissue protects vital organs, food reservoir
adipose tissue
commonly found in plasma membranes? made of fatty acids and glycerol?
lipids
Organic Compounds contain these elements? essential in all living cells.

hint:chon lives in the OC
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,nitrogen and usually potassium and sulfate
functions of protein in the body? (5)
1) build new tissue or replace old 2)form hemoglobin 3)some hormones 4)enzymes 5)energy in place of glucose
how many essential amino acids that can't be made by body? must be eaten
8
I join to make protein?
amino acid
protein molecules found in living cells?
enzymes
how many amino acids can be found in protein
23 but 20 primary or naturally occuring amino acids
amino acids are composed of CHON and there for??
an organic compound
protein molecules produced by living cells?
enzymes
an agent that speeds up a chemical reaction with out being consumed in the process
catalyst (it steps on the gas)
do enzymes act as catalysts?
yes
makes up the major portion of chromosomes
DNA
better source of energy than carbs but harder to oxidize?
lipids
if it ends in -ase it's a?
enzyme
fatty tissue, that provides insulator tissue protects vital organs, food reservoir
adipose tissue
commonly found in plasma membranes? made of fatty acids and glycerol?
lipids
Organic Compounds contain these elements? essential in all living cells.

hint:chon lives in the OC
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,nitrogen and usually potassium and sulfate
functions of protein in the body? (5)
1) build new tissue or replace old 2)form hemoglobin 3)some hormones 4)enzymes 5)energy in place of glucose
how many essential amino acids that can't be made by body? must be eaten
8
I join to make protein?
amino acid
protein molecules found in living cells?
enzymes
how many amino acids can be found in protein
23 but 20 primary or naturally occuring amino acids
amino acids are composed of CHON and there for??
an organic compound
protein molecules produced by living cells?
enzymes
an agent that speeds up a chemical reaction with out being consumed in the process
catalyst (it steps on the gas)
do enzymes act as catalysts?
yes
makes up the major portion of chromosomes
DNA
these molecules help the conversion of the genetic code into proteins and other gene products?
RNA molecules
the "building blocks" of DNA and RNA
DNA nucleotides and RNA nucleotides
building blocks of proteins
amino acids
helps cells or microbes to sythesize proteins in order to grow of repair itself
RNA
passes on genetic info from cell to cell. controller of cell activity
DNA
6 factors that support bacterial growth:
1)proper temp or body temp 2) proper pH 7.0 3)proper moisture 4)nutrients 5)gaseous requirement 6)light
contain CHON plus phosphorus?
DNA and RNA
nucleotide (building blocks of DNA ) are made up 3 subunits
a nitrogenous base, and 5 sugar base (pentose), and phosphate group
3 different types of RNA?
mRNA-messenger RNA
rRNA-ribosomal RNA
tRNA-transfer RNA
genetic info contained in one gene of a DNA molecule, used to make on molecule or mRNA process known as
TRANSCRIPTION DNA to mRNA

central dogma:
DNA to mRNA to protein
process of genetic info in the mRNA molecule then used to make on protein molecule
TRANSLATION mRNA to protein

central dogma:
DNA to mRNA to protein
organism that uses light as an energy source
phototroph
organism that uses chemicals as an energy source
chemotrophs
process of organism converting light into chemical energy
photosynthesis
organism that uses only carbon as an energy source
autotroph
organism that use oorganic compounds other than CO2 as their carbon source
heterotrophs
one particular substance that only a particular enzyme can catalyze
substrate
nutritional needs of bacteria
chon and sulfer,and phosphous
viruses that can remain dormant in host cells are
temperate
apoenzyme cannot catalyze without ?
cofactors
breaking down (breaking down of bonds), release energy, lrgr molecules broken down to smaller
catabolism
building up (formation of bonds), require energy, smaller molecule bond to make lrgr
anabolism
the major energy storing or energy carrying molecues in a cell
ATP molecules (found in all cells)
organism that use oorganic compounds other than CO2 as their carbon source
heterotrophs
one particular substance that only a particular enzyme can catalyze
substrate
nutritional needs of bacteria
chon and sulfer,and phosphous
viruses that can remain dormant in host cells are
temperate
apoenzyme cannot catalyze without ?
cofactors
breaking down (breaking down of bonds), release energy, lrgr molecules broken down to smaller
catabolism
building up (formation of bonds), require energy, smaller molecule bond to make lrgr
anabolism
the major energy storing or energy carrying molecues in a cell
ATP molecules (found in all cells)
what 3 things are nutrients for for cells?
carbon,hydrogen and inorganic compounds
true or false: oxygen and carbon dioxide are gases and not considered nutrients
true
are saphropytes heterotrophs?
yes
these organisms can transform into carbs,fats and proteins
autotrophs
do hetrotrophs use organic of inorganic compounds other than Carbon Dioxide?
organic
polysaccarides are the polymers of?
glucose
Lipids are commonly found with __________in the plasma membrane.
proteins
Polymers are also called?
subunits
break down large molecules into smaller. Breaking of bonds. releasing energy
catabolism
smaller molecules are bonded together to make larger molecules. Requires energy.
anabolism
when the bacteriophage DNA is intergrated into the bacterial chromosome. the bacteriophage DNA replicates along w/ the chromosomes
lysogeny
a bacterial cell w/ bacteriophage DNA intergrated into it's chromosome
lysogenic cell
when a bacterial cell has acquired new phenotypic(genetic info)characteristics as a result of lysogeny.
Lysogenic conversion
the sequence of events in the multipication of virulent bacteriophage, ends with lysis of the bacterial cell.
lytic cycle
The dissolution or destruction of cells
lysis
any of a group of viruses that infect specific bacteria, usually causing their disintegration or dissolution.

Also called phage
bacteriophage
to carry across-bacterial genetic material maybe carried across from bacterial cell from bacteria cell to another virus
transduction
which of the process doesn't involve bacteriophages?
transformation
bacterial cell becomes genetically transformed following the uptake of "naked" DNA
transformation
transfer of genetic material (often plasmids)from a donor cell to a receipient cell through a hollow sex pilus
conjuction
what type of RNA activate amino acids and transfer them to a growing protein chain?
tRNA
which type of RNA mirrors the DNA template read in sets of three
mRNA
? and protein comprise ribosomes found in cytoplasm or attached to endoplasmic Reticulum (ER). Not directly involved in protein synthesis.
rRNA
DNA is carried by ?
bacteriophage
animals, fungi, and protozoa obtain energy from ?
carbon atoms and chemicals
are enzymes proteins???
yes
non toxigenic cell is changed into toxigenic cell is called?
lysogenic conversion
accidental change of DNA in structure
mutation
random and spontaniously dna is found at the site of protein
mutation
name three catagories of mutation
beneficial mutation,harmful mutation and silent mutation
dna stands for:
deoxyribonucleic acid
polymer of nucleotides?
RNA
involves change in the base sequence of genes.
mutations