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163 Cards in this Set

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Looked at cork. Coined term cell from his observations
Robert Hooke
Cells are the basic unit of organization for all living things
Cell Theory
Tried to dissprove spontaneous generation. Meat and maggot experiment.
Redi
Disproved spontaneous generation. Flask experiment
Pasteur
Added carbolic acid to wound infections. First disinfectant
Lister
Proved 1 microbe causes 1 specific disease
Koch
1
Microbe must be identified in individuals with disease
2
Must get organism cultivated in pure cultures
3
Must be able to innoculate a suseptible animal w organism .That organism must cause same disease.
4
Reisolate organism from test animal into pure culture and identify it as original microbe
DNA organized into chromosomes
Eukaryotes
Membrane bound organelles
Mitochonria
Nucleus
Ribosomes etc.
Eukaryotes
Cell Walls
Prokaryotes
Eukaryote-Plants
Mitosis/Mieosis/Reproduction
Eukaryote
Contains nucleus
Eukaryotes
Bacteria
Prokaryote
Have more surface area compared to volume to transport nutrients in/out faster
Prokaryote
One circular strand of DNA
Prokaryotes
no membrane bound organelles. Everything has to happen in cell membrane
Prokaryotes
Binary Fission/Reproduction
Cloning
Prokaryotes
Do both Prokaryotes/Eukaryotes have Ribosomes?
Yes. 70s/80s
Do animals have cell walls?
No. Plants and Prokaryotes have cell walls
What is the major function of bacterial cell walls?
Homeostasis.Prevent cells from rupturing when H2O inside the cell is greater than outside the cell.
Responsible for the shape of the cell.
Cell wall
Serve as a a point of anchorage
Cell Wall
Clinically, Why is the cell wall important?
Contributes to the ability of some species to cause disease AND is the site of action of some antibiotics
Consists of many layers of peptidoglycan. Forming thick rigid structure
Gram+
Thin layer of peptidoglycan
Gram+
NAG's and NAM's
Combination of peptide bonds and carbohydrates.
What Peptidoglycan is made of
Plasma Membrane
Seletively Permeable
Most important function
Why is Gram- cell more permeable?
It has porins( protein channels) and periplasmic membrane
Techoic Acid
Gram+
LPS w/ Lipid A
Gram-
Passive Transport
From HIGHER CONCENTRATION to LOWER CONCENTRATION
Simple
Facilitated
Osmosis
Movement following a gradient
Passive Transport
Example rock rolling down hill
Active Transport
Movement against a gradient
Only transport to require energy.
Gram+ endospores
Bacillus/Clostridium
Ribosomes
Protein Synthesis
What is the cells capsule made of?
Glycocalyx
What is the purpose of the glycocalyx?
Protects cell from drying out
Adhere to surfaces
Protection from phagocytosis
What are specialized resting cells?
endospores
Where is the periplasm located?
Between the cell membrane and outer wall.
Function of pili
Attachment and mating
All Gram - have pili
Animals
Helminths
Function of Flagella
Locomotion
Arrangement of Flagella
Monotrichious
Peritrichious
Amphitritious
When do endospores form?
Only in unfavorable environment
Endospores can survive
boiling(for hours)
dehydration
toxic chemicals
radiation
Free living protoplasts
Mycoplasms
Cells in which the cell wall has been removed but lysis has not yet occurred
Mycoplasms
organic compound
compound whose chemical element includes CARBON
4 Most important macromolecules
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acid
Monomers
Small units that make up macromolecules
Hydrolysis
Breaking of macromolecules
H2O required
Dehydration
making of macromolecules
gives off H2O
Proteins
Most abundant organic component
Denaturation
Destruction of proteins
Lipids
store energy as fat
important in cell membrane
Carbohydrates
energy source
component of cell wall
5 or 6 carbon ring
ATP
Chemical energy
What is the sum of all chemical reactions within living organisms?
Metabolism
What is a catabolic reaction?
Release of energy as large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules
Hydrolysis
What is anabolic?
Energy requiring
Building of macromolecules
Dehydration
What are the 5 steps of metabolism?
1.Entry-raw materials are brought into the cell
2.Catabolic reaction-break down of raw materials
3.build up basic building materials. Amino Acids for protein
4.Polymerizationjoin building material
5. Assembly- finishing touches
What is oxidation?
Loss of e-
What is reduction?
Gaining of e-
What is the function of NAD/FAH?
Transport Hydrogen
What is the final e- acceptor in Aerobic Metabolism?
O2
What does the ETC do?
Transports e- from NADH to O2/or N2S2
What is chemiosmosis?
Movement of H+ across membrane using ATPaseprotein channel. Formation of ATP.
ADP-ATP
What is Respiration?
Movement of e-through ETC end with O2 taking e- and binding with H+ forming H2O
What comes out of glycolysis?
NADH
ATP
Pyruvic Acid
What goes in Glycolysis?
Glucose
What goes in the Kreb Cycle?
Pyruvic Acid
What comes out of Kreb Cycle?
NADH
FADH
CO2
Anaerobic Respiration
O2 not final e- acceptor
No H2O
H2S, or H2N
Fermentation
No ETC
No Chemiosmosis
How is energy generated in Fermentation?
Substrate level phosphorylation
What is genetic engineering?
manipulation of DNA to further our ability to uarantee quality of human life
INSULIN
FACTOR 8
ANTIBACTERIAL DRUGS
Metabolite
Intermediate product
What are 2 common growth requirements for bacteria?
Nutrition
Environment
How is nutrition defined?
Chemicals from environmentused to build molecules needed to build new cells
Why is Carbon important?
needed for organic molecules
Nitrogen?
Nucleic Acid DNA/RNA
Phosphorus?
DNA/RNA backbone
Phospholipid bilayer
What are Trace Elements?
iron
copper
zinc
copper
potassium
Aids in the activities co-factors/co-enzymes
What are organic growth factors?
Vitamins needed in minute quantities
Precursors of Growth factors
Do all microbes require O2?
Yes, But not atmospheric O2
What is catalase?
Aerobes produce enzyme that breaks down Hydrogen Peroxide to H2O and O2
Thermophiles
Survive very high temp.
Mesophiles
Same basic temp range that we live in
Psycrophiles
survive very cold temp.
Halophiles
like high salt
What pH do most bacteria grow thw best in?
6.5-7.5
Direct Count
Use slide called counting chamber
Plate Count
calculate # of living cells
Most Probable Number
dilution of liquid samples
What is genetics?
The study of heredity and variations among organisms
What are nucleotides made up of?
base,sugar,and phosphate
What are genes?
Segments made of very specific moleules
TRANSCRIPTION
DNA to RNA by RNA POLYMERASE
TRANSLATION
RNA to PROTEIN by RIBOSOMES
What is unique characteristic of bacteria?
Plasmids
Circular DNA , smaller than a chromosome
Plasmids
What is a mutation?
Any chemical change in a cells genotype
Are most mutations lethal?
Yes
Mutations can be:
Rare- Spontaneous
Mutations can be induced:
Physical(UV light, radiation)
Biological
Chemical (smoking or pesticides)
What are the types of mutations?
Deletion
Base substitution
inversion
duplication
Transposing
Unlike sexual reproduction itis not essential part of life cycle of bacteria
Genetic Transfer
Only a portion of a cells genome is transferred to another cell
Genetic Transfer
Transfer is only one way
Genetic Transfer
Transformation
DNA leaves one cell,exists in extracellular environment before being taken into another cell
Griffith-Strep. Pneumonia
Conjugation
Carried out by plasmids
Plasmid (in donor cell) makes a copy of itself and another cell donor transfers the copy to the recipient cell
Transduction
Involves (viruses)
Occurs when a virus infects bacteria
What is taxononmy?
Classification system
Genus species
Latin
Binomial Nomenclature
Viruses
English
Nucleic Acid
Genome
Death of a microbe
cells can no longer divide to make a new cell
Control
inhibiting the growth of microbes or killing
Microbiostatic
inhibiting not killing
Microbiocidal
control by killing
Sterilization
destroy All Microbial life
Disinfection
reduce # of pathhogens to a level they pose no danger of disease
Decontamination
Instruments and surfaces are made safe
Fomites
Antisepsis
kills microbes on skin or other living tissue
HEAT
heat-moist heat kills more readily than dry heat
COLD
does not kill most bacteria
FREEZING
kills most bacteria from OUTSIDE IN/ RATHER THAN INSIDE OUT
RADIATION
damages DNA
Eukaryotes
explodes
Prokaryotes
implodes
CHEMICAL ANTIBIOTIC/GERMCIDES
KILLER-INHIBITS
GERMICIDES-KILLS
HELMINTHS
Cause larvae damage
FLATWORMS
TAPEWORMS
FLUKES
TAPEWORMS
Abosorb nutrients through host
Transmitted-MEAT
3 PARTS: Scolex,Germinal Center,Reproductive
FLUKES
Transmitted-SNAILS->H2O->HUMAN->FISH->DAMAGE
Liver damage,Blood
ROUNDWORMS
Examples: Hookworm
Trichonosis, Elephantitis
TRICHINOSIS
Transmitted-larvae uncooked pork
ELEPHANTITIS
Transmitted-Mosquito-> Lymph->swelling blood->mosquito
NO MOSQUITO NO DISEASE
HOOKWORMS
Transmitted-Barefoot in soil
Vector
transmits disease between 2 hosts
Reservoir
place where microbes can be maintained between hosts
eat,rest,reproduce,develop for an extended period of time
Arthropod vector
can be mechanical or biological
Mechanical
Pick up pathogen on body part and carries it one place to another
Biological
essential links in transmission of disease
TICKS-EGGS
TRANSOVARIAN TRANSMISSION
VIRUSES
NOT CELLS, BUT PACKAGES OF GENETIC INFORMATION
REPLICATING STATE IN HOST CELL
VIRIONS
VIRUS IN NON REPLICATING STATE
OUTSIDE HOSTS CELL
VIRUSES CAN:
Direct their own reproduction
Evolve
Contain some macromolecules found in cellular organisms
VIRUSES LACK:
OWN Metabolism
Classification of viruses
HOST RANGE-Spectrum of organism a virus attacks
SIZE
STRUCTURE
LIFE CYCLE OF VIRUSES:
Absorption-attach host cell
Penetration-viral genome penetrates host cell
Viral Synthesis-makes viral components
Maturation-components assemble to new virion
Release exit host cell often killing cell
STRUCTURE OF VIRUSES:
Nucleic Acid core-surrounded by protein sometimes membrane
Nucleic acid- DNA/RNA ds,ss
Capsides-protein coats
Envelope pieces of hosts cells plasma membrane acquired as it emerged from its host cell
Viral Growth Curve
1 step
Latent period
Burst Period
Develpomental Pathways
lytic
lysogenic
Lytic Pathway
produces new virions
virulent phage
kills host cell quickly
Lysogenic Pathway
long state of quiet
temperate phage
host cell not damaged
viral genome enters host cell
Viroids
infect plant
circular molecule of ssRNA no protein coat
Do healthy people have more microbes than human cells in and on there body?
Microbes
What is health?
Relative state of equilibrium
organ systems function adequately
NOT PERFECTLY
What is disease?
A state of relative disequilibrium
May be resolved by recovery or death
Does disease resolve itself?
Recover or Die
What are Normal Flora?
Microbes that coexist with the human bodyin stable relationship