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134 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
E. Coli has no mitochondria therefore

A. E. Coli has no glycolytic pathway
B. E. Coli has no Krebs cycle
C. has not ETC
D. All of the Above
E. None of the above
E. None of the above
Enzymes speed up reactions by
decreasing the activation energy
Oxidation reactions are always coupled.

NADH has more NRG than NAD+
Both statements are true
Intermediates of catabolic reactions
are ofetn used in anabolic reactions
Changes in temperaturewill affect the action of enzymes by
Altering the tertiary structure.
Glycolysis yields a net 2 ATP and 2NADH. The pathway will come to a grinding halt, however unless NAD+ is generated NAD is genereated during...
Aerobic respiration
Fermentation
Anaerobic respiration
Anaerobic respiration and fermentation differ in that
The final electron acceptor during fermentation is internal
Alcoholic fermentation is a characteristic of
some yeasts
When Dinitrophenol is added to a culture of E. Coli, the pereability of the membrane is altered so that hydrogen freely passes across the memberane
Adding Dinitrophenol to a culture of E. Coli growing aerobically will terminated the production of ATP
Starch can by hydrolyzed by amylase to yield maltose and glucose. Amylase is
an enzyme
A mutant strain of E. Coli is isolated which is unable to make the enzyme superoxide Disumtase. This strain of E. Coli is
An obligate anaerobe
Electron acceptors besides oxygen that can be used in respiration
Nitrate
Sulfate
Elemental sulfur
Difference between Adenine and Uracil
DNA- one OH
RNA- two OH
Transcription is the syntheiss of RNA using a DNA template

Translation is the syntheysis of protien from and mRNA template
Both statements are true
DNA is replicated in a 5 prime to 3 prime direction
True
Which strand needs RNA primers to make new DNA?
Both
DNA Replication requires
Deoxyribonucleotides
Ribonucleotides
DNA polymerase
Transcription requires
Ribonucleotides
RNA polymerase
Ration of G to C is always 1
In Bacterial DNA
Thymine base pairs with
Adenine
Translation occurs
on the ribosome
Introns are present
Eukaryotic DNA
Example of molecular palendrome
GAATTC
A few known mutagens
5-bromo-uracil
Nitrous Acid
Ethidium Bromide
Wildtype E. Coli is a prototroph

Wildtype humans are auxotrophs
Both statements are true
In the presence of glucose, teh lactose operon is shut down. This is because glucose binds to the operator region, blockin RNA polymerase
False
In general, which mistake is most likely to reslut in a non-functional protien
Nonsense
Penicillin does NOT
kill auxotrophs in a minimal glucose medium
and does not increase sponatneous mutation frequency
The transfer of genetic material from one bacterium to another via a bacteriophate vector is called
transduction
Transformation requires compentent cells

The DNA that enteres a cell during transformation must be a replicon
Only statement one is true.
The F-factor can integrate into the bacterial chromosome. This is accopmlished by
Site-specific recombination
R-factors are
Plasmids
carry resistance genes to multiple antibiotics
Transfer copies of themselves
Do not recombine with the host cell's chromosome
What's true about F matings
The donor remains a donor and the recipient becomes a donor
Tools for identifying bacteria
DNA sequencing
Biochemical testing
Colonial morphology
Microscopic properties
What is required for a successful PCR reaction?
Primers
Restriction endonucleases
dNTPs
Taq DNA polymerase
A sequencing reaction is similar to the PCR in that melting, annealing, and extension occur over multiple cycles. The major difference is that
PCR uses two primers, sequencing uses one.
Agarose gel electophoresis is a technique to separate pieces of DNA, what is true about it?
The DNA is sparated based on its size
The DNA migrates toward the positive pole
The DNA is visualized by staining with Ethidum Bromide
Antov van Leeuenhoek
first to observe microorganisms 300 years ago
Direct selection for mutations can be used when the mutation:
Makes a bacterium resistant to streptomycin

and

Makes an auxotroph a phototroph
A frameshift mutation occurs in the gen for the outer membrane protein ompF gene products allow maltose to enter the cell and serves as a receptor for teh T2 Bacteriophage. What will be the result of the mutation?
the cell will neither di in the presence of glucose and will still be able to utilize glucose.
A silent mutation occurs in the gene for the first enzyme in the glycolitic pathway. The result is
Nothing
A chemical is tested using the ames test. The chemical is added to the log phases of salmonella typhimurium and then plated on minimal medium without histadine. 122 colonies grow. What can be concluded about this chemical.
Nothing because we don't know the original mutation rate. There is no control.
Which of the following including oxygenic phototrophs?

Fungi, bacteria, protozoa, helminths or more than one
Bacteria only
A good cloning vector will have at least one antibiotic resistance gene and and reporter gene such as the lacZ gene. The restriction sites should be
with the reporter gene
Which of the following is/are found with all viruses?

DNA, RNA, DNA and RNA, Envelope, or Protien
Protien
Which of the following is/are primary producers?

Algae, E. coli or elephants?
Algae
Primary wastewater treatment reduces/removes

BOD, Phosphate, Nitrogen, or more than one
BOD
Oxygenic phototrophs include the blue/green algae, these are:

Prokaryotes, unicellular eukaryotes, multicellular, eukaryotes
Prokayrotes
Protozoa, fungi, and helmintes have little medical signifance

True or false
False
Which protects the human host from infectious disease?

Lysosome, mucous, normal flora
All
T-cells

are innate
are granulocytes
mature in the thyroid

yes no
No, are active, are leukocytes, and mature in the thymus
Antibodies protect the host by
opsonizing invading microbes, neutralizing toxins, activating complements
IgG and IgM differ that
The have different heavy chains
They recognize different antigen
They recognize different antigenic determinats
A rash after exposure to poison ivy is an example of
Type IV hypersensitivity
Infectious
can infect a person virus to person
Communicable
Organism to organism
Congenital
present at birth
Inherited
genetic disease
Neoplastic
tumor
Noscomial
infection aquired in the hospital
Latrogenic
disorder a pathology due to medical infection
Idiopathic
origin unknown
Convalensence
feeling better but still sick
Bacteremia
bacteria in the bloodstream
Innaparent infection
infection with no apparent symptoms
Five F's
Food, feces, flies, fomites, and friends
Cryptosporidium
protozoan that survived water treatment
Propagated epidemic
person to person, slow rise slow fall
Common source
particular place or time, no cases, no cases, LOTS OF CASES, no cases...
Boils and carbunkles
caused by staphylococcus aureus
Scalded skin syndrome
Rash, sandpaper texture
Lyme disease
Borrelia borgdoferi gram negative
Trasmitted by deer and wood ticks
Symptoms of lyme disease
Target shape rash
Influenza like symptoms
Arthritis
Chronic nervous systWem symptoms
Bullseye rash doesn't always occur
Streptococcus pyogenes
flesh-eating disease
Psudomonas aeruginosa
burn wounds
Tetanus
clostridum tetani
Gas Gangrene
Clotridum Perfringes and other species
Strep Throat
Streptococcal pharyngitis
Pyrogenes
Diptheria
Corynebacterium diptheriae

Exotoxin
Vaccine available
Acute Aferbrile Corezea
Caused by many different viruses
Rhinoviruses are most common
Can lead to more serious bacterial diseases
Adenoviral phayrgitis
Non enveloped dsDNA virus
Caused by adenovirus
Pneumoccucule pneumonia
Klebsiella pneumonia
Causes permantent damage to lung
Complication lung abscesses bacteremia
Plasmids contain resistant genes
Capsule
Whooping Cough
caused by bordetella pertussis
Helicobacter pylori
peptic ulcers
antibiotic treatment is effective
Bacteria produces urease which neutralizes stomach acid
Mumps
Paramyxovirus
infects glandular tissue
Cholera
Caused by Vibrio
Exotoxin
Severe diarrhea
E. Coli
Traveler's Diarrhea
Enterotoxingenic
diarrhea and vomiting
Enteroinvasive
penetrate and cause diarrhea
Enteropathogenic
is pathogenic
Enterhemmorrhagic
blood loss
Samonelosis
Different strains of salmonella
Gastroenteritis
Typhoid fever
Vaccine available
Women
flora influenced by estrogen
more likely to get urinary tract infection due to the urethra's proximity to the anus
Toxic Shock Syndrome
Toxins absorbed into the bloodstream and causes shock
STD
15 million new cases a year
Gonorrhea
Neisseria gonorrheae
Different surface antigens
Women Aysmptomatic but can move up fallopian tube and cause infertility
Males get painful discharge
Chlymdial genital systems
discharge or asymtomatic
Leading bacterial infection
Syphilis
Spyrochete
Treponema pallidum
Many manifestations
Primary syphilis
painless ulcer, infectious, treatble
Secondary syphilis
rash, aches and pain, muchous membrane lesions, treated
Tertiary syphilis
gummas, interal swollen lump, damage to large blood vessels, eyes and nervous symptom damageq
Chancroid
painful, enlarging, soft changurs near genetalia
Genital herpes simplex
1 above the waist
2 below
Very transmissionalbe
Gift that keeps on givingP
Papillomavirus
cervical cancer
Genital Warts-
noncancerous lesions
Cervical cancer
precancerous lesions
Trochomonas vaginalis
Third leading cause of vaginal infections
Men asympomatic
E. Coli is growing in the presence of glucose and lactose
Levels of cyclic amp will be
low
E. coli is growing in the presence of lactose and glucose. The level of Beta-glactosidase will be
low
the lactose opeon
is an example of polycistronic mRNA
Epidemology
study of the transmission of disease
Direct transmission
organism to organism, physical contact, droplet transmission
Indirect transmission
via inanimate object or fomites
Impetigo
staph or strep, sores on skin
Acute glomerulonphritis
Active Immunity
when the host is mounting a immune response
Passive Immunity
when the immune response was done in a different individual and introduced into a new host
Artificial Immunity
Intervention from medical technology
Natural Immunity
No medical intervention
Natural Active Immunity
recovering from chickenpox
Artificial active
vaccines
Natural Passive
antibodies from mom to baby
Artificial passive
indroduction of antibodies and antigens
Gamaglobulin
seperation from blood that contains antibodies
Attenuated vaccine
living bacterium that has lost the ability to cause disease. Causes a higher immune response
Inactivated vaccine
"killed" No chance of causing disease
Fractions vaccine
only a certain piece of the mirobe is introduced
Salk Vaccine
Polio vaccine Save inactivated virus
Sabin Vaccine
Attenuated virus. Only known cases of polio today are from the Sabin vaccine
Immunodiffusion
Zone of optimization you tohave to be a proper ration of antigens and antibodies
Immunoeletrophoriesis
antigen + electrophorisis
Type 1 Hypersensitivity
Allergies
Anaphylaxis
Shock
Ex. Bee stings, penuts, penicillins
Shock
When all your capilaries open.
5 liters of blood in a 10 liter system. Blood pressure drops hard and fast
Type II Hypersensitivity
Cytotoxic- complement lysis
Hemolytic