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133 Cards in this Set

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Why is meningitis difficult to treat?
The medication must pass through the blood-brain barrier
Why is encephalitis difficult to treat?
The medication must pass through the blood-brain barrier
What organisms are capable of causing meningitis?
Neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus)
Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus)
Listeria monocytogenes
What organism is the most common cause of meningitis in children?
Neisseria meningococci
What are some characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis infections?
-Has capsule
-Occurs in young children
-Affects extremities, resulting in amputations
-Most common, not vaccinated for as much
How is leprosy contracted?
through mucus membranes
What is Hansen's disease?
leprosy
What causes leprosy?
Mycobacterium leprae
What are the two forms of leprosy?
tuberculoid, lepromatous
Which form of leprosy is the worst and what does it do?
lepromatous, deforms body, dissolves bones
How is leprosy treated?
anti-inflammatories
How does fatality usually occur in people infected with leprosy?
Leprosy rarely kills, tuberculosis is usually the cause.
How is rabies diagnosed?
The differential diagnosis in a case of suspected human rabies may initially include any cause of encephalitis, particularly infection with viruses such as herpesviruses, enteroviruses, and arboviruses
What are the symptoms of rabies?
-Long icubation period
-Drooling
-Muscles constricting
What causes rabies?
rabdovirus
What is the reservoir for rabies?
Raccoons, skunks, bats
What is PAM?
Paralytic Amoeboid Meningoincephalitis
Where is Naegleria fowleri found?
Bottom of freshwater lakes in muck
How is PAM contracted?
When swimming in water, if bottom is stirred up, it can get into the nose
What are the symptoms of PAM?
Stiff neck and death
What organism causes PAM?
Naegleria fowleri
What organism causes tetanus? How?
Clostridium tetani
Spore enters through cut or deep puncture wound, tetanospasmin neurotoxin is formed
What are the symptoms of tetanus?
Trismas (Lockjaw), muscle stiffness, spasms. Blocks inhibitory nerve transmission
How do you treat an unimmunized person for tetanus?
tetanus immunoglobulin (TIG) - antitoxin
How do you treat an immunized person for tetanus?
toxoid booster
penicillin
What are some diseases that cause encephalitis?
toxoplasmosis, meningitis, rabies, syphillis, herpes, rubella
What time of year does encephalitis most commonly occur? Why?
Summertime, warm months, mosquitos are out which harbor it.
How can encephalitis be avoided?
Use bugspray or protective clothing.
How is poliomyelitis contracted?
Ingestion
How is meningitis contracted?
Respiratory system
What CNS diseases have no vaccine?
PAM, toxoplasmosis, african sleeping sickness,
What is the difference between the Salk and Sabin vaccines?
The Salk vaccine is made by inactivating the virus with formalin, and administering through injection.
The Sabin vaccine is an attenuated virus which is orally administered, and other people can be vaccinated by coming in contact with a person who has received the oral vaccination.
Why is penicillin given to rheumatic fever patients?
To prevent reoccurrance
What are the symptoms of rheumatic fever?
-inflammation of joints and heart valves
-can cause bumps near elbows and where inflammation occurs
Why does rheumatic fever cause inflammation?
Antibodies try to attack the antigen
What is the treatment for rheumatic fever?
anti-steroidal anti-inflammatory, antibiotic such as penicillin
What causes tularemia?
Franciscella tularensis
What is rabbit fever also known as?
tularemia
How is tularemia treated?
streptomycin
How is tularemia contracted?
By handling rabits
What is a symptom of brucellosis?
Fever, headache, sweating, chills, symptoms may go away for a period then return, or undulate
What is another name for brucellosis?
undulating fever
How is brucellosis transmitted?
Ingestion of contaminated meat/dairy products
What animal is susceptible to brucellosis?
Cow, goat, pig, dog
What organism causes anthrax?
Bacillus anthracis
How can anthrax be contracted and what happens through each way?
Skin - causes black scab
Inhalation - can be fatal
How does Bacillus anthracis stain in a gram test?
gram +
What are cardiovascular diseases that are transmitted in milk?
1
What are CNS diseases that are transmitted in milk?
Lysteria
What are respiratory diseases that are transmitted in milk?
3
How is toxoplasmosis contracted?
ingestion of infected meat or contact with cat feces
What organism causes toxoplasmosis?
Toxoplasma gondii
Who should be careful about getting toxoplasmosis? Why?
Pregnant women, it can cross the placenta and into the fetus, causing harm to an infant.
What organism causes african sleeping sickness?
Trypanosoma spp.
How is african sleeping sickness contracted?
Tsetse fly bite
What are symptoms of african sleeping sickness?
-a chancre develops at the bite
-fever, lymph node swelling, rapid heartrate, edema and sometimes a rash
-later, mental problems, resulting in coma and death
What is the vaccine for african sleeping sickness?
There is none, the protozoa membrane constantly mutates
What is trypanosomiasis?
American/African sleeping sickness
What is shagus disease?
American sleeping sickness
How is american sleeping sickness contracted?
Reduviid bug (Kissing bug) bite on lip that transfers the tripanasome
What organism causes american sleeping sickness?
tripanasome
What is puerperal sepsis?
Childbirth fever
How is puerperal sepsis contracted?
unsanitary childbirth or abortion
How is puerperal sepsis treated?
antibiotics
Why is puerperal sepsis rare?
Modern sterile medical practice does not give it a chance to be transmitted
What is the difference between bubonic plague and pneumonic plague?
Bubonic - get bubos(bumps) on lymph node areas, black/blue bruises. Contracted by rat flea bite

Pneumonic - Human-human transmission, spread through respiratory system, kills in 3 days
What are symptoms of cholera?
severe diarrhea-rice water stool, muscle and stomach cramps, vomiting and fever, severe dehydration
What is zoonosis?
Disease transmitted to humans from animals
What organism causes scarlet fever?
Streptococcus pyogenes
What organism causes q-fever?
Coxiella burnetii
What organism causes psittacosis?
Chlamydophila psittaci
What organism causes whooping cough?
Bordetella pertussis
What organism causes tuberculosis?
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
What organism causes influenza?
Orthomyxovirus
What organism causes histoplasmosis?
Histoplasma capsulatum
What is Darling's disease?
histoplasmosis
What is the reservoir for psittacosis?
birds
What is the reservoir for pertussis?
adults/children
What is the reservoir for influenza?
birds
What is the reservoir for Q fever?
rat
What are the stages of Bordetella pertussis?
catarrhal - initial stage, cough, runny nose, sneezing

paroxysmal - second stage after 1-2wks, whooping between coughs begins

convalescent - 1-2months goes away
What is the most common way to contract hepatitis C?
blood transfusion
How does salmonella stain on the gram test?
gram -
Is salmonella an infective or a intoxicating dose?
Infective
Where is salmonella found?
Meat, eggs, milk, reptiles, birds
What does Salmonella typhi infect?
Spreads throughout body, invasive
How is Salmonella typhi contracted?
Human to human
What is Salmonella typhi treated with
chloramphenicol
What are complications of gonorrhea in men?
Inflammation of the epididymis, prostate gland, urethral structure. Can cause sterility, meningitis, arthritis, heart problems.
What are complications of gonorrhea in women?
Can cause cysts, abscess, PID, sterility, meningitis, arthritis, heart problems.
What is the most common STD in the US?
chlamydia
What organism causes trichomoniasis?
Trichomonas vaginalis
What organism causes gonorrhea?
Neisseria gonorrheae
What organism causes chancroid?
Haemophilus ducreyi
What organism causes gardnerella?
Gardnerella vaginalis
What organism causes syphilis?
Treponema pallidum
What STD's can cause congenital infections of the newborn?
syphilis, gonorrhea, herpes, genital warts, chlamydia
What is cystitis?
urinary tract infection, can infect bladder and go to kidneys
What is honeymooner's disease?
cystitis, urinary tract infection
What causes cystitis?
E. coli and other gram (-) organisms
What organism found in the adult vagina is part of the normal flora?
Lacto bacillus
What is the cause of traveler's diarrhea?
E. coli
What gastrointestinal disease is transmitted respiratorily?
mumps
What factors may lead to cystitis?
E. coli from feces, hygiene
What are the symptoms of Gardnerella vaginitis?
vaginal frothy discharge, clue cells
What are the symptoms of trichomoniasis in men?
asymptomatic
What are the symptoms of candidiasis?
soreness, itching
What are the symptoms of trichomoniasis in women?
intense itching, green-yellow discharge
What are the symptoms of Lymphogranuloma venereum?
superation of the lymph nodes
What are the predisposing factors for Clostridium perfringens?
gas gangrene, tissue necrosis
What conditions must be met in order for botulism to grow?
pH > 4.7
anaerobic
How does botulism affect us?
releases botulism neurotoxin which causes nerve/muscle paralysis
What CNS diseases have vaccines?
Polio, Rabies, Tetanus, meningitis, anthrax, yellow fever
What organism causes sub-acute endocarditis?
alpha strep
What organism causes acute endocarditis?
staph
What organism causes malaria?
Plasmodium spp.
What organism causes yellow fever?
Flaviviridae arbovirus
What does yello fever affect? Symptoms?
Liver, jaundice
What does malaria affect?
RBC's, liver
What are the symptoms of sub-acute and acute endocardidis?
sub-acute takes longer to infect heart tissue
acute happens rapidly
What is the treatment of malaria?
chloroquine
What is the treatment of yellow fever?
none
What organisms have an intoxicating dose?
Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium botulinum
What kind of media is used to culture B. pertussis?
charcoal blod agar
What is the preferred method to diagnose whooping cough?
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
What disease results in lymphocytosis?
whooping cough
What is the vaccine used for pertussis?
DTP (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis)
This medication is effective in killing the B. pertussis organism, but not in curing the whooping cough. Why?
erythromycin, the cytotoxin released persists to kill cilial epithelial cells
What disease involves a pseudomembrane in the back of the throat?
diphtheria
What medium is used to isolate Corynebacterium diphtheriae?
cysteine tellurite agar
What is the cause of the symptoms of diphtheriae?
exotoxin
How is diphtheria treated?
antibiotics and the diphtheria antitoxin
This leads to a higher WBC count, decreased glucose, and increased protein in CSF
bacterial meningitis