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54 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Which microorganisms are classified ad prokerayotes
1 algae
2 archaeobacteria
3 protazoans
4 yeasts
archaeobacteria
The gram stain is an example of what type of stain?
differential
The presence of a spore in a vegetative bacterial cell helps establish that the organism is of which genus?
Bacillus and Clostridium
Euglena gracilis is generally classified as having which nutrition process?
Autotriphic
In a mixes culture a particular bacterial species represents 0.01% of the total cell population what is the best way to isolate this species in a pure culture?
Grow the culture on an enrichment medium and then use the streak plate method
A barrier that pervents the passage of bacteria, but not smaller particles is placed between a genetic donor and a genetic recipient. Which gene transfer will be stopped by this barrier?
Conjugation
If a bacterial gene coding for a receptor protein were to be mutated so that is would no longer bind to the operator site on the DNA what would happen to the structural genes controlled by that repressor?
The RNA polymerase would always find and open promotor/operon region. Thus it would be permanently turned on.
What can be determined from the one step growth curve exhibited by lytic bacteriophage?
the average number of viruses released per infected cell
Which method ensures sterilization because of its high sporicidal activity?
desiccation
pasteurization
pressurized steam
UV light
Pressurized steam is used for sterilization in the autoclave where it penetrates tough bacterial spores and destroys them quickly
How does moist heat kill bacteria?
small temperature increases lead to denature some proteins
In which form of dadiation does the killing oc cells result from inactiviation of sensitive macromolecules by free radicals such as the hydroxyl radical?
Ionizing radiation is powerful enough to ionize water by causing atoms to change to ions
Why is the pratice of adding antibiotics to animal feed controversal?
The practice preferentially allows the growth of bacteria strains that are resistant to drugs used to treat human infections.
Which microorganism is a common, normal inhabitant of the human intestine?
Escherichia coli
How do tears and saliva disrupt the cell walls of gram positive bacteria?
Lysosome in tears and saliva weakens the cell wall by rupturing peptidoglycan layers
What do high serum titers of IgM indicate?
IgM antibodies are the primary response to exposure to an antigen.
A child immunized with a polio vaccine will develop which type of immunity
artificially acquired, active
Why is streptococcus pneumonia resistant to destruction by phagocytosis?
The large capsule of S. pneumoniae prevents the phagocyte from adhering to the cell.
a newborn in an intensive care nursery has low birth weight and shows signs of cataracts and a heart murmur. Maternal history shows undiagnosed upper respiratory tract infection with low-grade fever and mild skin rash during the third week of pregnancy. Which microbial agent would be most likely be responsible for these occurences in both mother and newborn?
Rubella often goes undetected and can produce the signs described in the newborn if contracted in the first trimester of pregnancy
A pultry processor comes to the clinic complaining of chronic cough and general malaise. X-rays show calcified nodules on lungs. TB test and acid-fast test negative. Sputum samples show large fungs-like oval cells, often inside leukocytes. What is the most probable cause of the persons signs and symptoms?
Histoplasma capsulatum
What is the mechanism that leads to death in patients with cholera
fluid and electrolyte loss
Why are there more females than male carriers of gonorrhea in the US?
Females are often asymptomatic and therefore fail to seek treatment.
What does the presence of coliform bacteria in drinking water supply indicate?
The water is potentially dangerous to drink, because the water is contaminated with soil or sewage. Coliforms are indicator organisms for the presence of human waste in water.
Which disease may be prevented y immunizing with a toxiod?
small pox
tetanus
TB
typhoid fever
Tetanus toxoid is used in the DPT vaccine to produce immunity against tetanus
A microorganism used in an industrial setting to produce antibiotics should ideally exhibit what characteristic?
A secondary metabolite. Antibiotics are secondary metabolites that are easy to retrieve if in an appropriate growth medium.
The conversion of ethanol in wine to acetic acid occurs under which circumstance?
When wine is exposed to air too long, acid-forming bacteria use the oxygen to convert the ethanol in wine to acetic acid.
What type of bacterial cell wall would contain lipopolysaccharide
Gram-negative
Which of the following would be found in bacteria but not in a eukaryotic microbe
Peptidoglycan
What term refers to small,circular, autonomously replicating DNA molecules in bacteria?
Plasmid
What bacteria have a flexible spiral shape?
Spirochetes
What are packets of four spherical bacteria best called?
Tetrads
What factor limits the performance of any optical instrument?
Resoulution
who performed the first PCR reaction with a heat-stable DNA polymerase
Mullins
What kind of media is used to increase the numbers of rare members of a sample
Enrichment
Who first used agar to solidify bacterial media?
Hess
what type of microscopy can give a three-dimensional view of a bacterial cell?
Scanning Electron
What antibacterial compound did Ehrlich use to treat syphilis?
Salvarsan
Who discovered viruses
Ivanowski
Who disproved the spontaneous generation of flies
Redi
Who first observed cells in cork tissue?
Hooke
Bacteria That thrive at temperature above 40 C are best called
Thermophiles
Which of therse is a plant pathogen comprised of a small, naked and circular RNA molecule?
Viroid
What is the first step in the viral infective cycle
Attachment
What term describes viruses that attack bacteria?
Bacteriophage
What are the protein subuints of a viral capsid called?
Monomers
What group of protozoans consist entirely of obligate parasites
Sporozoa
What factor is used to classify the protozoans?
Motility
What class of algae contains kelp?
Brown
What class of fungi contains the mushroom and other club fungi?
Basidiomycetes
What eukaryotic organelle contains digestive enzymes and is involved in apoptosis?
Lysosome
What eukaryotic organelle is involved in lipid biosynthesis?
Smooth ER
Movement of a microbe toward light is best termed what?
Phototaxis
What structure is used to bind to a recipient cell during conjugation?
Pilus
What type of bacterial cell wall would contain mycolic acid?
Acid Fast
What kinds of microorganisms are non-photosynthetic and contain chitin in their cell walls
Fungi