Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/33

Click to flip

33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Systemic illness caused by spread of microbes (or toxins) via bloodstream
Septicemia
Describe progression of sepsis
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome --> Sepsis --> Severe sepsis --> Septic shock --> Multiorgan Dysfunction Syndrome
Inflammatory response that can be triggered by infectious or non infectious cause (pancreatitis, trauma)
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome
Definition of sepsis
SIRS + infection
Definition of severe sepsis
Sepsis + hypotension
Definition of septic shock
Sepsis + persistent hypotension
Difference between severe sepsis and septic shock
Inability to correct by fluids in septic shock
#1 cause of bacteremia
Gram positive organisms
#1 cause of septic shock
Gram negative organisms
Major contributor to gram neg virulence
LPS
Mediators of sepsis in gram positive bacteria
Peptidoglycan

Lipoteichoic acid

Superantigens
Functions of LPS
Elicits production of cytokines

Activates comlement cascade

Activates coagulation cascade
Name pyrogenic cytokines
TNF alpha

IL1

IL6
Which cytokine activates T cells
IL 12
Which cytokine is chemotactic factor for leukocytes
IL8
Fever
Wasting
Increased breathing and HR
Hypotension
Hemorrhages in organs


Which cytokine
TNF alpha
Stimulates prostaglandin release in hypothalamus – fever contributes to hypotension, anorexia
increase in PMN’s

Which cytokine
IL1
Which complement promotes neutrophil reactions
C5a
Name bacteria that produce superantigens
S aureus

S pyogenes
-From infected foci
-Associated with influx of host neutrophils
-Set off inflammatory cascade
-Does not trigger as intense a TNF-a response

Gram positive or gram negative
Gram positive
-Arise from within host – GI tract, biliary tract, urinary tract
-May be controlled by antibody and complement
-Have fewer virulence factors but do have endotoxin

Gram positive or negative
Gram negative
Patients with sickle cell anemia are at increased risk of what type of sepsis
Salmonella
How many blood cultures should you get for diagnosis of sepsis/septic shock
3
Group A beta hemolytic strep
Strep Pyogenes
Virulence factors of Strep pyogenes
-M protein
-Pyrogenic exotoxins (Spe’s)
-Streptolysin S
-Streptolysin O – lyse RBC
Enzymes:
-Streptokinase
-Dnase
-C5a peptidase
Beta-hemolytic on blood agar plate
Bacitracin sensitive
PYR positive
Strep Pyogenes
>80 serotypes
-Binds fibrinogen
-Binds IgG
-Binds complement factor H
discourages binding of C3b to surface
M protein
Which antigens are shared between Strep and human antigens
-Cardiac myosin
-Sarcolemmal membrane protein
-Synovium
-Articular cartilage
Major criteria for acute rheumatic fever
-Carditis
-Polyarthritis
-Chorea
-Erythema marginatum
-Subcutaneous nodules
Most frequent cause of myocarditis in North America
Viral
Most frequent cause of myocarditis worldwide
Chagas disease
-Young person with unexplained heart failure or arrhythmias with:
Systemic febrile illness
URTI
-Peripartum cardiomyopathy
Myocarditis
Causes of acute myocarditis
-Coxsackie B
-Serotypes 2 and 5 of Adenovirus family