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213 Cards in this Set

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Pox viridae

large size allows them to be
potential vectors for the introduction of genetic material in vaccinations and gene therapy
Poxviridae

is RNA or DNA
ss or ds
withe complex...?
dsDNA

complex capsids
envelopes
Poxviruses infects what/who?
mammals: mice
camels
elephants
cattle
monkeys
animal poxviruses are.....
species specific
unable to infect humans
cannot attach to human cells
poxviruses

macules are...
stage 1
lesions
flat
reddened
poxviruses

papules are...
stage 2
raised sores
poxviruses

vesicles
lesions fill with clear fluid
pustules

also known as
pus-filled

pocks
pox
poxvirus pustules dry up to....
form a crust, & because they penetrate the dermis leave scars
poxvirus infection occurs how?
inhalation of virus in droplets or dried crusts

close contact is necessary for infection bc envelopes are unstable outside of host's body
the 2 main poxvirus diseases of humans are
smallpox
moluscum contagiosum
the main poxvirus disease of animals are
orf (sheep/goat pox)
cowpox
monkeypox--may be transmitted to humans
who first demostrated immunization using cowpox virus to protect again smallpox
Edward Jenner
Smallpox --commonly known as

_______
exist in what 2 forms?
variola

1. variola major
2. variola minor
Smallpox

variola major

characteristics
severe disease w/ 20% (or higher) mortality
mortality depends on age/health of host
Smallpox

variola minor

characteristics
less severe disease
<1% mortality rate
variola major and variola minor

infect what?
signs / symptoms
internal organs
up to 107 degree fever
malaise
delirium
prostration bf moving via blood to skin
leave scars (especially on face)
smallpos was the first human disease to be
eradicated globally in 1980
1 of the greatest 20th century accomplishments
5 reasons why smallpox was able to be eliminated
1. vaccine, effective, stable, cheap
2. specific to humans
3. s/s are diagnostic
4. no asymptomatic cases
5. spread ONLY via close contact
Moluscum contagiosum

characterized by
smooth waxy papules in lines where pt has spread virus by scratching
3 types of herpes viruses
herpes simplex
varicella-zoster
Epstein-Barr
Herpesviruses are....
latent, inactive for years
Herpesviruses

may reactivate as a result of
aging
chemotherapy
immunosuppression
physical/emotional stress
Herpesviruses

may insert into host's chromosomes, where they may....
cause genetic changes and potentially induce cancer
Herpesviruses

causes (diseases)
oral herpes
genital herpes
chicken pox
shingles
mononucleosis
some cancers
HHV is

specific name
human herpesvirus
HHV-1
HHV-2

are from the genus
simplexvirus
HHV-3 is
varicellovirus
HHV-4 is
lymphocryptovirus or
Epstein-Barr virus
orphan virus is
a virus without a known disease
HHV-1
HHV-2

2 details of
1. distressing aspect is latency & recurrence of lesions

2. 67% chance of recurrence
HHV-1 occurs
above the waist
HHV-2 occurs
below the waist
in the brachial ganglia

what is latent
whitlow lesions
sacral ganglia

what is latent
genital herpes
on the trigeminal nerve ganglion

what is latent
ocular herpes on the ophthalmic branch
on the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve what is latent
fever blisters on the upper lip
on the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve what is latent?
fever blisters on the lower lip
oral herpes

characteristics to know
1. 1st human hv discovered
2. causes fever blisters/cold sores
3. is HHV-1
oral herpes

herpetic gingivostomatitis is
lesions in the oral cavity
seen in young pts
low immune systems
oral herpes

herpetic pharyngitis is
when young adults have sore throats resulting from other viral infections
genital herpes

characteristics
1. HHV-1 and HHV-2
2. infect gentalia
hhv-1 causes oral lesions
hhv-2 causes genital lesions
ophthalmic herpes
ocular herpes

characteristics
1. HHV-1
2. usually in 1 eye
gritty feeling
conjunctivitis
pain
sensitivity to light
may cause corneal lesions
can lead to blindness
whitlow

HHV1 or 2
enters body how
latent in what ganglia
HHV-1 or HHV-2
enters cut/break in skin on finger
latent in branchial ganglia
neonatal herpes

characteristics
HHV-2
severe, 30% mortality if cutaneous or oral
80% mortality if CNS is affected
virus can cross the placenta
infect @ birth
mother's w/ oral lesions
herpes gladiatorum
HHV-1
atheletes develop lesions anywhere on skin
HHV 1 & 2 may also cause ...____...-- in patients with....
encephalitis
meningitis
pneumonia

pts with AIDS
severe immune suppression
HHV-1 and 2 transmitted via
close body contact
syncytium is
when infected cell fuses w/ unaffected neighbor cell allowing virus to spread from cell to cell w/o leaving the cell--avoiding the immune system
most common STD in the US is
HHV2
diagnosis of HHV1 & HHV 2
lesions are diagnostic
microscopic exam of infected tissue reveals syncytia
immunoassay shows viral antigens present
treatment of HHV 1 & 2
valaciclovir
nucleoside analogs (iododeoxyuridine or trifluridine)
no cure
prevention of HHV 1 & 2
wear gloves
w/ whitlows--no pt contact
abstinence
monogamy


condoms do not protect when there are active lesions
HHV 3 commonly called
varicella-zoster virus

VZV
varicella transmitted via
respriatory tract or eyes
varicella s/s
fever
malaise
skin lesions

rarely fatal if assoc. with 2ndary bacterial infections
chicken pox lesions begin as
progress too
begin as macules
1-2 days to papules
finally thin walled, fluid filled vesicles on red bases
"dewdrops on rose petals"
vesicles turn cloudy, dry up, crust over in few days
shingles or
herpes zoster

characteristics
15% of people who've had chickenpox
virus becomes latent for years
stress, aging, immune suppression induce
extremely painful rash
flat lesions on dermatomes
chickenpox treatment
self-limiting
requires no treatment other than relief of symtoms
tylenol for pain / fever
antihistamines for itching
Aspirin should not be given to children or adolescents with symptoms of chickenpox because of the risk of contracting
Reye's syndrome
Reye's syndrome is
a condition associated with several viral diseases and aspirin usage
treatment of shingles
manage symptoms
bed rest
nonadherent dressings
loose fitting clothing
Acyclovir (not a cure)
prevention of chickenpox
attenuated vaccine
2 doses 1 year old up to 50
single dose of shingles vaccine for pts over age 60
HHV-4 is
Epstein Barr virus
human herpes virus 4
EBV (Epstein-Barr virus) causes (2 things)

and is the first virus....
Burkitt's lymphoma
mononucleosis

linked to human cancer
HHV-4 is transmitted via
saliva, kissing, sharing glasses
pathogenesis of EBV
enters the blood stream (viremia)
invades B lymphocytes
becomes latent
immortalizes B cells suppressing apoptosis
(war between T cells & infected B cells)
(T cells kill B cells, can't fight infection as well)
papillomaviruses causes
papillomas, benign growths of epithelium of skin or mucous membranes, commonly known as warts
seed warts
plantar warts
flat warts
genital warts
condylomata acuminata
genital warts
giant cauliflower like growths
papillomaviruses precipitate
anal, vaginal, penile, oral, and cervical cancers
papillomaviruses are transmitted
direct contact
bc they are stable outside the body (fomites)
autoinoculation
papillomaviruses diagnosis
warts are diagnostic
papillomaviruses treatment
surgery
freezing
cauterization
laser
caustic chemicals
otc salicylic treatments
duct tape
to remove warts
papillomaviruses prevention
genital warts --abstinence, monogamy
Gardasil 3 doses 11-26 yo
polyomavirus infections cause
several different tumors in animals and humans
PML
progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
JC virus--virions reach the brain
rare fatal disease
viruses infect/kill oligodendrocytes
lose vision, speech, coordination, cognitive skills, paralysis, and death
Adenoviridae

adenoviruses name because
they were first discovered infecting cultures of human adenoid cells
adenoviruse linked to
from the genus
common cold

pink eye

Adenoviridae
Adenoviridae

adenoviruse spread via
respiratory droplets
fomites
improperly chlorinated drinking water
adenoviruse produce
genus is
semi-crystallized viral masses w/in the nuclei of infected cells

is diagnostic for infections

Adenoviridae
Adenoviridae

adenoviruse treatment
gamma interferon
attenuated vaccine (military only)
Hapadnaviridae

human hepatitis B virus HBV

unique because
dsDNA and partly single-stranded DNA
Hapadnaviridae

human hepatitis B virus HBV

targets
the liver
Hapadnaviridae

human hepatitis B virus HBV

jaundice
a yellowing of the skin and eyes, occurs as bilirubin accumulates in the blood
human hepatitis B virus HBV

characterized by
GENUS
jaundice
hepatomegaly
abdominal distress
bleeding into skin and internal organs

Hapadnaviridae
Hapadnaviridae

human hepatitis B virus HBV

also called
serum hepatitis
human hepatitis B virus HBV

spread by
genus
body fluids(blood)
razor/ toothbrush sharing
unsterile needles
blood transfusion
sex
babies during childbirth

Hapadnaviridae
Hapadnaviridae

human hepatitis B virus HBV

prevention
HBV vaccine
what are dane particles

related to what disease?
complete/infective virions

Hepatitis B
Spherical particles

filamentous particles

structure is
linked to what virus
capsids composed of surface antigens without genomes

Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B

treatment
no effective treatment
alpha interferon
lamivudine
entecavir (all 3 help in 40% of cases)
liver transplant for end-stage
HBV is linked to
hepatic cancer
Parvoviridae

Parvoviruses are the only pathogens
of humans with ssDNA genome
Parvoviridae

Parvoviruses cause disease in
animals
fatal in puppies
Parvoviridae

Parvoviruses structure
smallest of DNA viruses
icosahedral capsid
Parvoviridae

Parvoviruses

the primary infection of humans is
B19 virus --causes
erythema infectiosum (also known as)
fifth disease (5th childhood rash)
Parvoviridae

Parvoviruses
(5th's disease)
diagnosis
presence of red skin rash beginning on cheeks then progressing to the arms, buttocks, and trunk.

rash is aggravated by the sun
RNA viruses

Rhinoviruses signs/symptoms
sneezing
rhinorrhea
congestion
sore throat
headache
malaise
cough
RNA viruses

Rhinoviruses

is most commonly linked to
the common cold
RNA viruses

Rhinoviruses

limited to infected what?
why?
the upper respiratory tract
replicate best @ 33 degrees celcius, temp of the nasal cavity
RNA viruses

Rhinoviruses

are extremely infective...takes
a single virus to cause a cold in 50% of people
RNA viruses

Rhinoviruses

transmitted by
coughing
sneezing
fomits
hand to hand contact
person to person contact (most common)
RNA viruses

Rhinoviruses

prevention
antisepsis
disinfect fomits
hand washing
RNA virus

enteroviruses

contrary to their name
do not usually cause disease of the digestive system

infect pharynx/intestine
RNA virus

enteroviruses

transmitted via
the fecal oral route
RNA virus

enteroviruses/ Poliomyelitis

acquired by
swallowing contaminated water
swimming
RNA virus

enteroviruses / Poliomyelitis

targets
brain stem, medulla causes paralysis

"iron lung" respirators patients were attached to
RNA virus

enteroviruses / poliomyelitis

Paralytic polio; invades
cells of the spinal cord and motor cortex of the brain producing paralysis by limiting nerve impulse conduction
RNA virus

enteroviruses / paralytic polio

in bulbar poliomyelitis
the brain stem and medulla are infected, resulting in paralysis of muscles in the limbs or of respiratory muscles (iron lungs used)
RNA virus

enteroviruses / paralytic polio

in bulbar poliomyeltis paralysis lasted
6-24 months, but was lifelong in some cases
RNA virus

enteroviruses / paralytic polio

occurs in less than
2% of cases
RNA virus

enteroviruses / postpolio syndrome

is the
crippling deterioration in the function of polio-affected muscles that occurs in up to 80% of recovered polio patients some 30-40 years after their original bout with poliomyelitis
RNA virus

enteroviruses / postpolio syndrome

is not caused by
reemergence of poliovirus/ virus is not present

effects appear to stem from an aging-related aggravation of nerve damage that occurred during the original infection
RNA virus

enteroviruses / poliomyelitis

inactivated polio vaccine IPV was developed by
Jonas Salk in 1955
RNA virus

enteroviruses / poliomyelitis

oral polio vaccine OPV was developed by
Albert Sabin in 1961
RNA virus

enteroviruses / echoviruses

name derived from
enteric cytopathic human orphan virus

because they are acquired intestinallly and were not initially associated with any disease (orphan viruses)
Enteroviruses

treatment
support and limitation of pain and fever
Enteroviruses

prevention
good hygiene
sewage treatment

no vaccine for coxsackie or echo
vaccine for polio
Hepatitis A

RNA virus

transmitted via
survives outside the body?
do disinfectants work?
feca-oral route

lives for days on surfaces

resist disinfectants like bleach
Hepatitis A

prevention
2 doses of Hep a vaccine for all children and adults
RNA virus

Arbovirus

means
Ar = arthropod

bo = born

arthropod born virus
Arbovirus

transmitted via
vectors

mosquitos
ticks
Arbovirus

prevention
control vectors

deet, netting, no standing water, protective clothing
Arbovirus (RNA virus)

Encephalitis

EEE
WEE
VEE
eastern equine encephalitis

western equine encephalitis

venezuelan equine encephalitis
Arbovirus

encephalitis

viral replication occurs where
in the brains of horses and humans
Arbovirus

encephalitis

________is linked to it
West nile virus
RNA -- Arbovirus

Dengue fever

vector
mosquitos

control the vectors + standard mosquito control/repellents
RNA -- arboviruses

Dengue fever

symptoms/signs
fever
weakness
edema of extremities
severe pain in head, back, muscles
RNA -- arboviruses

dengue fever

indicates the severity of the pain/common name for the disease
breakbone fever
yellow fever

involves degeneration of
is a .....
degeneration of liver, kidneys, heart and massive hemorrhaging

is a RNA virus
arbovirus
flavivirus
yellow fever

hemorrhaging in the intestines may result in
"black vomit"
RNA -- arboviruses

flavivirus-- yellow fever

liver damage causes jaundice giving disease its nickname...
"yellow jacket"
RNA -- arboviruses

flavivirus-- yellow fever

vector
mosquitos

control the vectors
yellow fever
RNA or DNA
genus(s)

in 1793
killed 4000 people in Philadelphia

RNA
arbovirus
flavivirus
yellow fever

in 1898
ss or ds RNA or DNA
gnome is
genus is
killed more American soldiers than the war

-ssRNA
segmented gnome
Orthomyxoviridae
RNA -- arboviruses

flavivirus-- yellow fever

in the 1900's
was eliminated due to mosquito control and vaccine development
Rubella

commonly known as
DNA or RNA
German measles or

three-day measles

+ssRNA
+ssRNA Rubella

infects
only humans
enters respiratory system
spreads to lymph nodes
into blood to body
+ssRNA Rubella

after infecting the body it
has a characteristic rash of flat pink to red spots (macules) and lasts about 3 days
+ssRNA Rubella

humans shed virions in respiratory droplets....
2 weeks before &
2 weeks after rash
+ssRNA Rubella

results in (babies)
crosses the placenta causing severe congenital defects
cardiac abnormalities
deafness
blindness
MR
microcephaly
growth retardation
death
+ssRNA Rubella

diagnosis
observation & serological testing for IgM against rubella
+ssRNA Rubella

treatment
none
hepatitis C HCV
RNA or DNA
GENUS

spread via
needles
organ transplants
sex
not arthopods
RNA
FLAVIVIRUS
hepatitis C HCV

treatment/vaccine ?
RNA or DNA virus
from the genus?
none

RNA virus
flavivirus
Coronaviruses

are enveloped/naked?
RNA or DNA?
capsids shape
enveloped
+ssRNA virus
helical capsids
Coronaviruses

get their name from the
envelop forms a corona-like halo around the capsids
Coronaviruses

is the
second most common cause of colds after picornavirus rhinoviruses
Coronaviruses

transmitted via
epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract in large droplets (sneeze/cough) and, replicate at 33 degree C (nasal cavity) like rhinoviruses
Coronaviruses

SARS stands for
1st found in
severe acute respiratory syndrome

China's Guangdong province
SARS

symptoms
genus
fever above 100.4
headache
discomfort
respiratory distress

CORONAVIRUS
Coronaviruses

SARS

spread by
has a
close person to person contact

10% mortality rate
Paramyxoviridae
rhadoviridae
filoviridae

structures are
enveloped
helical
-ssRNA virus
rhabdoviruses have

are pathogens to who/what?
the most common is?
bullet shaped envelopes
plant & animal pathogens

Rabies is the most common
filoviruses

are pathogens that cause what?
ebola

marburg hemorrhagic fevers
-ssRNA viruses

Measles

also know as
rubeola

red measles
Measles
ss or ds RNA or DNA virus
spreads by
coughing
sneezing
talking

via respiratory droplets

-ssRNA viruses
Measles
RNA or DNA, ss or ds
signs/symptoms
ssRNA VIRUS

fever
sore throat
headache
dry cough
conjunctivitis
koplik's spots
-ssRNA viruses

Measles

Koplik's spots
2 days after onset
appear on mucous membranes of mouth
lesions--salt grain surrounded by red halo
-ssRNA viruses

Measles

rare complications
pneumonia
encephalitis
SSPE
-ssRNA viruses

Measles

SSPE stands for
s/s of disease
subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

slow, progressive disease of CNS that involves personality changes, loss of memory, muscle spasms, blindness 1-10 years after a measles infection
parainfluenza viruses

human parainfluenza virus HPIV 1 & 2 cause
croup

severe condition, inflammation & swelling of larynx, trachea, bronchi, seal bark cough
-ssRNA viruses

Measles

also know as
rubeola

red measles
parainfluenza viruses
Rubulavirus

Mumps

spread via
respiratory secretions
infect upper respiratory system
viremia develops
parotid salivary glands enlarge (parotitis)
orchitis (testicle inflammation)
-ssRNA viruses

Measles

spreads by
coughing
sneezing
talking

via respiratory droplets
-ssRNA viruses

Measles

signs/symptoms
fever
sore throat
headache
dry cough
conjunctivitis
koplik's spots
-ssRNA viruses

Measles

Koplik's spots are red......
raised (maculopapular) lesions
appear on the head and spread over body
-ssRNA viruses

Measles

rare complications
pneumonia
encephalitis
SSPE
-ssRNA viruses

Measles

SSPE is
subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

slow, progressive disease of CNS that involves personality changes, loss of memory, muscle spasms, blindness 1-10 years after a measles infection
parainfluenza viruses

human parainfluenza virus HPIV 1 & 2 cause
croup

severe condition, inflammation & swelling of larynx, trachea, bronchi, seal bark cough
parainfluenza viruses
Rubulavirus

Mumps

spread via
respiratory secretions
infect upper respiratory system
viremia develops
parotid salivary glands enlarge (parotitis)
orchitis (testicle inflammation)
parainfluenza viruses

mumps

treatment
none
rhabdovirus

rabies

envelope has
glycoprotein spikes on the surface that serve as attachment proteins
rabies

once the virus reaches the CNS
genus
neurological manifestations characteristic of rabies develop:
hydrophobia
seizures
disorientation
hallucinations
paralysis
death

rhabdovirus
rhabdovirus

rabies

is a classical
zoonosis of mammals mainly:
dogs, foxes, badgers, raccoons, skunks, cats, bats, coyotes, feral dogs
rhabdovirus

rabies

most common source of rabies in the US between 1990-2008
bats
rhabdovirus

rabies

diagnosis
neuro symptoms
serological test
postmortem detection of Negri bodies in the brain
rhabdovirus

rabies

prevention
HDCV-human diploid cell vaccine @ 0, 3, 7, 14 days after exposure

vaccinate animals
filoviridae

hemorrhagic fever

marburg virus was first found where?
% mortality is
1st found in germany
25% die
hemorrhagic fever

ebola virus
genus
1st found in DRC near Ebola river
90% die

filoviridae
filoviridae

hemorrhagic fever

Marburg & ebola

natural reservoirs
fruit bats
filoviridae

hemorrhagic fever

Marburg & ebola

predominant manifestation
uncontrolled bleeding under the skin & from every body opening as internal organs are reduced to a jelly-like consistency
filoviridae

hemorrhagic fever

Marburg & ebola

spread via
person to person contact via contaminated body fluids, blood, contaminated syringes
filoviridae

hemorrhagic fever

Marburg & ebola

can be spread from what to what or who to who
can spread among monkeys in the air but not from monkeys to humans or among humans
filoviridae

hemorrhagic fever

Marburg & ebola

treatment
fluid replacement
filoviridae

hemorrhagic fever

Marburg & ebola

prevention
vaccine for monkeys is the only one
-ssRNA
segmented genome
Orthomyxoviridae

Influenza

pandemic in
1918-19 winter
1.9 million infected
50 million died
10,000/week for months
Influenza

envelope is
pleomorphic lipid envelope
studded w/ glycoprotein spikes of hemagglutinin or neuraminidase HA or NA
Influenza

is the stomach flu from the species orthomyxoviruses?
no is probably caused by enteroviruses
Influenza

H1N1 was a result of
antigenic shift; genetic reassortment of 4 fluA viruses in animals & humans, most likely in Mexico
Influenza

signs/symptoms
rna or dna (ss or ds)
genome is.....
genus
fever
malaise
headache
myalgia
croup (rarely)

-ssRNA
segmented gnome
Orthomyxoviridae
-ssRNA
segmented gnome
Orthomyxoviridae

Influenza

people more susceptible to severe illness
weak immune systems
very young
elderly
cancer patients
Influenza

treatment
oseltamivir (tamiflu)
zanamivir (relenza)

only w/in the first 48 hours
-ssRNA
segmented gnome
Orthomyxoviridae

Influenza

preventions
vaccine made of deactivated viruses
cannot get the flu from the vaccine
bunyaviruses are arboviruses
-ssRNA

Hantaviruses

are not
arboviruses but are transmitted to humans via inhalation of virions in dried mouse urine or feces
bunyaviruses are arboviruses
-ssRNA

Hantaviruses

causes (the illness)
HPS--Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

fatal pneumonia, first found in the four corners area of the US in 1993
naked, segmented dsRNA

reoviruses

are
respiratory and enteric viruses with naked icosahedral capsids
naked, segmented dsRNA

reoviruses

reo stands for
respiratory
enteric
orphan
retroviruses do
reverse transcriptase to transcribe dsDNA from ssRNA
retroviruses contains 2 tRNA molecules and 10-50 copies of the enzymes .......
reverse transcriptase
protease
integrase
AIDS is not a disease bUT a _________ that is.....
syndrome
complex of signs, symptoms, and diseases associated with a common cause
AIDS is several opportunistic or rare infections, in the presence of antibodies agains HIV (human immunodeficiency virus).......
and a CD4 white blood cell count below 200 cells per microliter of blood
HIV 1 is prevalent in
the US and Europe
HIV 2 is prevalent in
West Africa
reproduces more slowly
HIV 1

2 antigenic glycoproteins
gp120

gp41
HIV infects 4 kinds of cells
1. helper T cells
2. cells of macrophage lineage (monocytes, macrophages, microglia)
3. smooth muscle cells
4. dendritic cells
syncytium is ______
a giant multinucleate cell, cellular fusion allows it to move from cell to cell
a provirus is
a latent virus
HIV

diagnosis
fewer than 200 CD4 lymphcytes per microliter of blood
unexplained weight loss
fatigue
fever
HIV diagnosis

serological studies (3)
ELISA
agglutination
western blot
ELISA stands for
enzyme linked immunosorbent assay
HAART stands for
highly active antiretroviral therapy
HAART is a
***not what the abbreviation stands for
cocktail of antiviral drugs, nucleoside analogs, protease inhibitors, and reverse transcriptase inhibitors to reduce viral replication