Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/100

Click to flip

100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Diseases that can be transmitted from one person to another are termed
communicable
The fraction of a population who die from a specific disease is called
mortality rate
Diseases constantly present in a population are called
endemic
An epidemic that spreads worldwide is called a(n)
pandemic
A cluster of cases in a specific population occurring in a brief period of time is called a(n)
outbreak
Apparently healthy people who may transmit a pathogen they harbor are called
carriers
A dramatic increase in the incidence of a specific disease in a given population is referred to as a(n)
epidemic
Diseases that primarily exist in animals, but may be transmitted to humans are called
zoonotic
The single most important measure to prevent the spread of disease is
hand washing
Inanimater objects capable of transferring infectious disease agents are
fomites
The amount of infecting agent received by susceptible individuals is called the
dose
The period of time betweeen exposure to an agent and the onset of disease signs and symptoms is called the
incubation period
The immunity of some black Africans to malaria is probably due to their
genetic background
An infection acquired during hospitalization is referred to as
nosocomial
The member of the hospital staff who surveys the types and numbers of nosocomial infections is called the
infection control practitioner
The guidelines used to minimize patient-to-personnel transfer of blood borne diseases are called
Universal Precautions
True or False Generally the smaller the infective dose the lower the chance of disease
True
True or False The very young and the elderly are more susceptible to infectious disease.
True
True or False Diseases with long incubation periods are more likely to spread extensively
True
True or False. A fly may serve as a mechanical vector.
True
True or False. The portal of entry typically has little effect on the course of the disease
False
Penicillin was discovered by
Fleming
The toxicity of a given drug is expressed as the
therapeutic index
Drugs that are bacteriostatic
Inhibit the growth of bacteria
Antimicrobials that kill microorganisms have the suffix
-cidal
The rate of elimination of an antimicrobial is expressed as its
half life
When drugs that are more effective when taken together are called
synergistic
If drugs are less effective when taken together than when each is taken separately, they are called
antagonistic
Which of the following bacteria have an innate resistance to penicillin?
Mycoplasma
All members of the penicillin family have
beta-lactam rings
Beta-lactamases
break the beta-lactam ring
Sulfonamides are similar in structure to
PABA
Sulfonamides work as
competitive inhibitors
The lowest concentration of a drub that prevents growth of a microorganism is the
minimum inhibitory concentration
The minimum bactericidal concentration is the lowest concentration of a specific antimicrobial drug that kills _______ of a specific bacteria
99.9%
The surface layer of the skin is the
epidermis
The oily secretion that lubricates the hair follicles of the skin is
sebum
Which of the following normal skin flora is a small yeast?
Malassezia spp.
The growth of P. acnes within hair follicles, in many individuals, leads to
acne
Which is deemed the most serious staphylococcal skin infection?
carbuncles
The S. aureus product that causes scalded skin syndrome is/are
exfoliative toxin
In addition to S. aureus, impetigo may also involve
S. pyogenes
The major vector of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the western U.S. is
Rickettsia rickettsi
The causative agent of Lyme disease is
Borrelia burgdorferi
The unique characteristic of Lyme disease is
erythema migrans
The stage of Lyme disease that is characterized by arthritis is the
third
The most important vector of Lyme disease in the eastern U.S. is
Ixodes scapularis
Which of the following pertains to Borrelia burgdorferi?
spirochete
The varicella virus is a member of which virus family?
herpes
Reactivation of chickenpox is called
shingles and herpes zoster A&B
Rubella, rubeola and varicella-zoster are all only acquired via
the respiratory route
An important diagnostic sign of measles is
Koplik's spots
The MMR vaccine is used to protect against
measles, mumps, rubella
Warts are caused by
Papilloma virus
The cause of strep throat is
Streptococcus pyogenes - beta hemolytic, group A
A bacteriophage is necessary for toxin production in
C. diptheriae
Which of the following are considered diseases of the lower respiratory tract?
tuberculosis and pneumonia
The characterisitic virulence factor of S. pneumoniae is
a capsule
The causative agent of the pneumonia that causes permanent lung damage, may be nosocomial and has a high mortality if untreated is
K. pneumoniae
The spread of mycoplasma is through
inhalation of infected droplets
The sudden, violent, uncontrollable cough of pertussis is described as
Paroxymal
The resistance of the tubercle bacillus to various factors is probably due to its
cell wall
The bacterial lung infection acquired by inhalation of aerosols of contaminated water is known as
Legionnaires' disease
Two relatively widespread North American lung mycoses are
coccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis.
The most common infectious disease of humans is
dental caries
The principal cause of dental caries is
S. mutans
This mineral, typically added to drinking water, makes enamel more resistant to dissolving in acid.
fluoride
H. pylori is, in part, able to survive in the stomach by its ability to produce
ammonia from urea
A painful finger infection attributable to herpes virus is known as a(n)
herpetic whitlow
Which of the following has shown some effectiveness in treating a herpes infection?
acyclovir
The viral disease that characteristically infects the parotid glands is
mumps
The diarrhea of cholera has been described as
a rice water stool
A common source of cholera infection is
fecal contaminated material, especially water.
Most cases of Slamonella gastroenteritis have a(n)
animal source
The food products most commonly contaminated with Salmonella strains are
eggs and poultry
The animal(s) often associated with Salmonella strains is/are
turtles, iguanas, baby chickens, ducks. All of the above
The most notorious typoid carrier was
Typhoid Mary
Which of these bacteria require a special medium and microaerophilic conditions?
C. jejuni
Viral gastroenteritis in infants and children is most commonly caused by
rotavirus
Hepatitis A spreads via
The fecal-oral route
The most commonly identified waterborne illness in the United States is
giardiasis
Most North American outbreaks of Cyclospora cayetanensis have been associated with
imported leafy vegetables and berries especially raspberries.
The important source(s) of tapeworm is/are
Beef, Fish, Pork. A,B,C
True of False. Sucrose is one of the major contributors to the development of dental caries.
True
True or False. Tapeworms are flat and can exceed 10 meters in length
True
Pinworm
Ingesting Ova
Whipworm
Skin penetration
Ascariasis
Skin Penetration
Hookworm
Skin Penetration
Strongloidiasis
Skin Penetration
Trichinosis
Eating undercood meat
The chronic inflammatory process involving the gums and tissues around the teeth is called
periodontal disease.
True or False. Antimicrobials that have a high therapeutic index are less toxic to the patient.
True
True or False. Broad spectrum antibiotics have minimal effect on the normal flora.
False
Antimicrobials may produce
Allergic reactions, Toxic effects, Suppression of normal flora. All of the above.
True or False. Antimicrobial resistance can be due to spontanewous mutation or gene acquisition
True
True or False. Viruses are very effectively treated with antibiotics
False.
True or False. Diptheroids are responsible for body odor.
True
True or False. The skin-invading molds are collectively called termed dermatophytes.
True
True or False. Diseases caused by fungi are called mycoses.
True