Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/45

Click to flip

45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Series of proteins in blood and tissue fluids that can be activated to help destroy and remove invading microbes.
Complement System
Proteins that function as chemical messengers, allowing cells to communicate.
Cytokines
Type of phagocytic cell that resides in tissues and has multiple roles, including scavenging debris and producing pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Macrophage
Major type of phagocytic cell in blood.
Neutrophils
Coating of an object with molecules for which phagocytes have receptors, making it easier for phagocytosis to occur
Opsonization
Proteins on or in cells that recognize specific compounds unique to microbes or tissue damage, allowing the cells to sense the presence of invading microbes or damage.
PRR
Pattern Recognition Receptors
Describe how the skin protects agains infection.
Closely inter-woven skin cells provide a protective barrier through which mo's can not move. Skin also has sweat glands, sweat with lysozyme which degrades cell walls of mo's. Skin pH is not hospitable to mo's.
What factors in saliva aid in protection against microbes?
Lysozyme
Why is iron metabolism important in the body's defense.
If the host can regulate use of iron and prevent microbes from using this vital element, microbes can not thrive.
How do complement proteins cause foreign cell lysis?
The MAC formes pores on the surface of foreign cells, causing it to lyse.
How do phagocytes enter tissues during an inflammatory response?
The vessels increase permeability and allow them to enter between the epithileal cells of the vessels
What is the pH of the skin?
3-5
What is the enyzme that breaks down peptidoglycan?
Lysozyme
How does lysozyme break down peptidoglycan?
Breaks the NAG and NAG bonds of peptidoglycan
Are Gram negative or Gram positive cells susceptible to lysozyome?
Gram Positive
What are the two things that sequester iron, keeping it from use by mo's?
Transferrin, lactoferrin
What is normal flora?
Natural mo's that live in our system all the time. Not harmful to us but offer competition to invading mo's and preventing their invasion.
What is the protein in flagella which is recognized by TLR's?
Flagellan
What element is detected by TLR's from Gram positive invaders?
Peptydoglycan
What element is detected by TLR's from Gram negative invaders?
Lipopolysaccharide LPS
List some different versions of RNA/DNA which is foreign to us and is detected by TLR's.
ssRNA, ssDNA, dsRNA
Even if it's in the form of our DNA/RNA, ie dsDNA, ssRNA, there are sequences present in foreign versions TLR's recognize
What is lipoteichoic acid?
A component of the Gram positive cell wall
What does a macrophage do?
Attracts help from the immune system and can stimulate an inflammatory response.
List four different kinds of granulocytes
basophil, neutrophil, eosinophil, monocyte
What is the most important and abundant granulocyte?
Neutrophils
What do mononuclear phagocytes mature into?
Macrophages and dendritic cells
Polymorphonuclear Neutrophilicleukocyte
Neutrophils
Where are neutrophils generally located?
In the blood until needed in the tissues.
How long do neutrophils live?
1-2 days
Are neutrophils bigger or smaller than red blood cells?
Bigger
What two methods are used to protect us from mo's by neutrophils?
Phagocytosis of the mo and releasing chemicals in granules to kill the mo
What % of leukocytes in the blood are neutrophils?
Approx 35%
What % of leukocytes in the blood are eosinophils?
2-4%
What % of leukocytes in the blood are basophils?
0.5-1%
What is the primary role of eosinphils?
Degranulation
When is degranulation useful?
When mo's are too large to phagocytize
Mast cells hang out _________ and basophils hang out _________
in the tissues; in the blood
What kind of chemicals do mast cells and basophils have in their granules?
Not toxic chemicals but inflammatory mediators ie histomines
Inflammation is a (1st/2nd) line defense?
2nd
What % of leukocytes in the blood are monocytes?
3.8%
Where do monocytes mature into macrophages and dendritic cells?
In the tissues
Macrophages live where?
Tissues
List two general kinds of opsonins
C3b and IgG antibody
_________ and _________ fuse together inside a phagosome and form a ___________ where mo's are degraded.
endosomes, lysososomes, phagolysosome
Can a neutrophil phagocytize repeated mo's?
No. Once it uses up all of its lysozome it dies.