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147 Cards in this Set

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Where does a cell get it's oxygen?
From the same place it gets its carbon.
What is an autotroph?
A cell that gets carbon and oxygen from the atmosphere.

Self-feeders.
What is a heterotroph?
A cell that gets its carbon and oxygen from organic compounds in its diet.

Different-feeders.
Explan what toxicity issues Oxygen has for an aerobic cell.
Aerobic cells will produce some by-products that contain oxygen to the cell during metabolism. These by-products can be harmful to the cell. The cell must make enzymes to convert the toxic by-products to something that is harmless.
What is an example of the toxiticy issues that Oxygen has for Aerobic cells?
Hydrogen Peroxide -- Catalase is made when there is Hydrogen Peroxide. It results in Catalase + h202 (hydrogen peroxide) = h20 + an increase in 02
What is a super oxide?
A free radical (o2) that have unpaired electrons (doesn't have enough electrons to make it chemically reactive) these are highly reactable.
Give an example of a super oxide.
The cell makes an enzyme called super oxide dismustase. The enzyme will convert the super oxide to hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen perodixe will make catalase to convert the toxic by-products into something harmless (see flash card 5)
What are the 3 environmental growth needs?
Oxygen, Temperature, pH
What is a Strict (obligate) Aerobe?
An aerobe that grows only in the presence of oxygen. An example is Pseudomonas aeruginos that causes swimmers ear and eye infections. A broth tube would have the bacteria just at the top where the oxygen is present.
What is a microaerophile?
Requires oxygen, tolerates less oxygen but requires more co2. An example is Helicobacter pylori that causes stomach ulcers. A broth tube would have the bacteria at the top but a space right before the top of the liquid.
What is a Facultative anaerobe?
A anaerobe that will grow with or without oxygen. An example is E. coli. It will have the bacteria scattered equally throughout the broth tube but thicker at the very top.
What is a Aerotolerant Anaerobe?
An anaerobe that will grow with out oxygen but will not die in the presence of it. An example would be Streptococcus pneumonia. It would have the bacteria spread equally throughout the broth tube, turbid with no pellicle.
What is a Strict (obligate) Anaerobe?
An anaerobe that will grow only in the absence of oxygen. An example is Clostridium (Gram +), it forms spores in unfavorable conditions. A broth tube would have the bacteria entirely at the bottom (sediment).
What are the three categories of temperature?
Thermophiles, Mesophiles, and Psychrophiles.
What is a Thermophile?
Likes heat, 50+
What is a Mesophile?
Likes moderate heat, 15-45
What is a Psychrophile?
Likes cold, 0-20
What is pH?
The measure of Hydrogen/OH ions in the environment.
What pH do most microbes like?
Between 5-8
What is an Acidophile?
likes a low pH (lots of Hydrogen ions, ex. fungus)
What is an Alkalinophile?
Likes a high pH (few Hydrogen ions)
What is a Halophile?
Likes a salty environment
What are the four ways to measure growth?
Turbidity, Direct Count, Plate Count, Most Probable Number (MPN)
How do you measure growth using turbidity?
Use spectrophotometer to calculate number of cells in a liquid. The more turbid the liquid, the more cells are in it.
How do you measure growth using Direct Count?
Take a measurement of liquid and count the number of cells in the sample under a microscope using a counting chamber slide.
How do you measure growth by using a plate count?
Take a sample of liqui culture and put it on an agar, then count the number of colonies. This will give you the number of living colonies in the liquid. This is what we use in class.
What is the most probable number? MPN*
Tells the number of living cells in a liquid culture. This is used for determining safe drinking water (how much E. coli is in the water)
What is genetics?
The study of heredity and variation among organisms.
What does DNA do?
It carries genetic information needed to make a new cell.
What is DNA made of ?
Guanine, Cytosine, Adenine, and Thymine?
What does Guanine bind with?
Cytosine.
What does Adenine bind with?
Thymine.
What are genes?
Specific segments of DNA that contain specific information needed to manufacture proteins (and other macromolecules)
What is DNA Replication?
the DNA reproduces itself whe nit is getting ready to produce a new cell. It uses DNA polymerase to do this.
What is Gene Expression?
The information is dictated to the cell for proteins to be made.
What are the two steps of Gene Expression?
Dna is transcribed to RNA by RNA polymerases. Then the RNA is translated to protein by ribosomes.
What is a Genome?
the sum total of DNA in the cell.
What are plasmids?
Additional DNA that is circular.
Describe plasmids:
They are smaller than a chromosome, they replicate on their own, Carry genes that are not essential for the growth and reproduction of the cell, but they carry genes that give them the advantage of survival in special environments.
What are some examples of genes found on plasmids?
Pigment, certain pili (for mating, toxins, and antibiotic resistance.
Who discovered plasmids?
Pasteur
How did Pasteur discover plasmids and what was his experiment?
He was trying to find a way to protect humans from anthrax. He grew the bacterium in meat broth until the bacteria was stressed. He injected the broth into the animal, but the animal did not die, but he could continue making new cultures of the bacteria.
What did Pasteurs experiment tell us?
The chromosomes were intact in his experiment, but the genes that gave the bacteria the advantage of surviving in our bodies and killing us were no longer there.

It showed us that genetic info changed over time.

The gene that would kill us went to a plasmid that was ejected from the cell.
What are the two ways Genetic information can change over time?
Mutation and Genetic transfer.
What is a genetic mutation?
Any change in the chemical make up of a cells genotype.
What are the 5 types of genetic mutations?
Base substitution, Deletion, inversion, Transposition, and Duplication.
Are mutations spontaneous?
Mutations can be spontaneous, although it is rare, or they can be induced by chemical, physical, or biological treatments... i.e. UV light or radiation (chemical)
What are jumping genes?
Genes that can jump from place to place within the genome (transposition)
Are mutations lethal?
Most are, but there are few that give chance of survival.
What is the first step in a mutation?
DNA must TRANSCRIBE to RNA

T H E F A T C A T R A N O F F
What is the second step in a mutation?
RNA must TRANSLATE to protein by way of ribosomes. (3 letter bases)
THE FAT CAT RAN OFF
What is a Base Substitution?
A single nitrogen base is substituted for another base.

THE FAT CAT RAN OFF
THE FRT CAT RAN OFF
What is a Base Deletion?
A single nitrogen base is deleted.

THE FAT CAT RAN OFF
THE FTC ATR ANO FF
What is Inversion?
When a set of bases reverses order.

THE FAT CAT RAN OFF
THE TAF CAT RAN OFF
What is Duplication?
When a set of bases duplicates itself and sets its copy down next to the original set of bases.

THE FAT CAT RAN OFF
THE FAT FAT CAT RAN OFF
What is Transposition?
A set of bases will move themselves from one place to another genome.

THE FAT CAT RAN OFF, THE RED DOG CAN RUN TOO

THE FAT OFF, THE RED DOG CAN RUN CAT RUN TOO
What are the 3 genetic transfers?
Conjugation, Transformation, and Transduction.

(only a portion of the genome is transfered, and it is one-way)
What is Transformation?
DNA leaves one cell, it exists in extra-cellular environment before going to another cell.
Griffin experimented with what bacteria? Explain his process of Transformation:
1. There are two forms of cell walls, smooth and rough.
2. He found that the smooth cells are deadly and the rough cells are not.
3. He heated the smooth cells to kill them. Then he injected the mixture into an anmial. The animal lived.
4. Then he mixed the heat killed smooth cells with teh rough cells and injected them in to an animal. The animal died even though the deadly smooth cells were dead, and the rough cells aren't toxic.
5. He realized the dead cells had fallen apart and their genome was sitting in the liquid culture medium.
6. The rough cells were able to take up the gene that was deadly and now, even though they looked harmless, they were now as toxic as the smooth cells had been before.
Explain Conjugation:
1. It is carried out by plasmids.

2. The genes on the plasmid will make a pilus between the two cells.

3. Since the plasmid can replicate itself, it will make a copy of the plasmid and transfer the plasmid to the cell that does not have this plasmid.

4. The cells can determine which cells have plasmids.

5. If 2 cells have plasmids that are the same, they will not undergo conjugation.
What is transduction?
Involves a virus. The virus is what transfers some of 1 bacterium cells DNA to another bacterial cell.
What is the process of transduction?
Virus goes in the cell and takes over, The virus accidently takes DNA from the cell. It goes to the next cell and it thinks it's injecting the cell with the virus but it is really injecting it with the first cells DNA
What is Recombinant DNA Technology?
Collection of different procedures where DNA is taken from 1 cell and is manipulated in a test tube, then placed in another cell. The cell is usually of a different species.
What is Gene cloning?
An example of Recombinant DNA Technology.
Explain Gene Cloning
1. Find a particular gene (ex Insulin) and place it in a vector.

2. The vector is usually a plasmid (round, prokaryotic DNA)

3. Now you have Human DNA + Bacterial DNA

4. Next you put the Rcombined DNA into a host cell (bacterial cell in this case)

5. You then have to verify that the recombined DNA is in teh host cell and will stay there (by Gel Electrophoresis)

6. Now you can get the cells to gorw and reproduce.

7. The cells will make identical copies of the human gene as well as the gne product, insulin.
Applications of DNA -- What can we make.
We can make DNA - Human Genome Project

We can make proteins - insulin, blood clotting factors

We can amplify genes - PCR, machine makes thousands of copies of one gene.

We can genetically engineer organisms - producing insulin
Technologies of DNA have helped hemophiliacs. THey no longer have to fear Hepatitis C or HIV due to the blood clotting factors we are able to make.
you are gunna doooo great!!!
Classifications - Hierarchy
Visual - plant, animal
add protista
Microscope - 1930's euk. pro.
1950's 5 kingdoms
Molecular - 1990's 3 domains:

1. arcahebacteria (ancient bacteria)
2. Bacteria
3. Eukaryote (Plant, Animal, Protist, Fungi)
What is scientific Nomenclature?
Binomial naming system
What are the rules.
1. first name is genus name
2. first name is capital
3. second name is species name
4. second name is not capital
5. always underlined or italicized
6. the name (prokaryotes/eukarotes) are written in latin.
What are the two glitches in scientific nomenclature?
bacteria and viruses.
Explain the glitches of Bacteria:
1. Species are a group of organisms that can interbreed, bacteria don't interbreed so therefore they are not species.

2. Bacteria species defined by Bergey, it says there are similarities between it's members.
Explain the glitches of Viruses:
1. they aren't cells
2. no evolutionary history
3. name viruses in english
4. group together: family, genus, species
5. NAMING -
SS RNA SS DNA . DD RNA DD DNA
What is the bergey manual of systematic bacteriology?
a. start:
cell wall -- + or neg
arrangement
shape
b. biochemistry
aerobic
anaerobic
carbon source
c. serology
antibodies in response to specific bacteria.

d. DNA sequences
e. Protein sequences
What are helminthes?
worms! Round or flat!
What are the characterisitics of flat worms?
- nervous system
- excretory system
- reproductive system
- in adult stage, have flat body
Explain the parts of a tape worm:
Scolex - head like. hooks to attach to intestinal lining

Germinal Center - under scolex, where new segments form

Exretory and Reproductive systems - in the segments. all segments have male and female parts. Nutrients go in, wastes go out across each segment.
What are the two stages of tape worm life?
1. larve - microscopic, life threatening

2. adult - can grow up to 30ft, relatively harmless
Explain the lifecycle of a lung fluke:
Flat, no segments:

1. adult worm develops in human lung.
2. worm damages lung while reproducing larvae.
3. human coughs up larvae and swallows back down.
4. as human swallows eggs, pass through feces
5. the feces end up on shorelines of rivers and creeks
6. the eggs will hatch to larvae MIRACIDIA
7. MIRACIDIA infects snail
8.in the snail reproduces a second larvae, REDIA
9. The REDIA develops in the snail and produces a free swimming CERCARIA.
10. The CERCARIA leaves the snail and enters water.
11. The CERCARIA finds a fish and infects it.
12. Once the CERCARIA gets in the seafood it goes to the muscle and creates a cyst called MEDICERCARIA.
13. The person eats the infected seafood.
14. Human breaks down cyst.
15. Larvae in intestines.
16. Larvae travels to the lungs.
17. then larvae turn to adults.
What are the characterisitcs of Round Worms?
1. round body

2. tapered at BOTH ends

3. Complete digestive system

4. Reproductive system
Explain life cycle of Trichinella spiralis
Trichinosis:
Caused by eating undercooked pork!

1. pig eats meat with cysts
2. acid in pigs somach opens cysts
3. larvae goes into stomach and hatch in intestines
4. they stay in intestines and grow to adults
5. the adults then lay eggs
6. the eggs will form a different larvae
7. then that larvae crosses the intestines, goes into the blood stream, and moves throughout the body
8. when they get to other parts of the body larvae forms cysts.

9. the human eats undercooked meat and cyst goes into the intestines of the human.
Hook worms and soil
Parasitic - filariform*

1. start as free living, turn to filariform
2. filariform penetrate bare feet.
3. they get inside blood stream
4. htey look for your lungs
5. once they are in lungs, human will cough up larvae and swallow back down.
6. the larvae develop into adults in the intestines
7. these adults produce and lay eggs inthe intestines
8. the eggs pass in feces
9. after passing through feces they go back to soil.
Explain Elephantiasis:
Caused by roundworms.
Roundworms need humans and mosquitoes as hosts.

1. larvae in mosquitoe go through 3 different stages in life.
2. the mosquito will then bite human.
3. mosquito pulls out blood, inserts larvae
4. larvae go under human skin
5. find their way to lymph system
6. develop into larger worms
7. block lymph circulation and causes body to swell
8. swells to the size of an elephant
9. adult worms produce larvae that move to the blood stream.
10. mosquito bites human, gets larvae from blood, then travels to insert the larvae into another human. BAM elephantiasis.
What is an arthropod?
invertebrate with jointed legs.
Examples of arthropods:
fleas, flies, t icks, spiders.
What is a vector?
some diease or pathogen between two hosts.
What is a Mechanical vector?
pick up pathogens on it's body part and move it from place to place.

Ex. fly on dung
What is a Biological vector?
essential link in transmission of diease or pathogen. arthropod is negatively affected by a microbe.

(elephantiasis, malaria, west nile virus)
What is a reservoir?
some place that will mainatin microbes between hosts (give food, water, allow for basic development)
What is a virus?
Parasites that are not cells, but have packages of genetic information. Latin for poison.
What is the purpose of a virus?
to insert themselves into a host cell, to take over the machinery, then leave and find a new cell to infect.
Are viruses living? - PRO
1. they can evolve (they can adapt themselves to be able to survive to continue their species)

2. They do contain some macromolecules seen in cellular organisms

3. They can direct their own reproduction.
Are viruses living? - CON
1. They are not cells

2. Lack own reproduction

3. In their non-replicating state, they show now obvious signs of life.
Classification of Viruses - HOST RANGE
Spectrum or range of organisms they will attack.

Ex) animals only, bacteria only, humans only, reproductive system only
How does a virus find the right host cell?
On the surface of any cell there are specific receptors. The virus uses these receptors to identify the right cell.
What is the size of a virus?
Incredibly small, 1/10 to 1/3 the size of a bacteria cell.
What is the replicating state of Viruses?
Replicating state takes place inside the cell, you can only see nucleic acid genome, called a VIRUS
What is the non-replicating state of Viruses?
Generally found ouside the cell. Only nucleic acid core surrounded by protein and sometimes membrane called VIRION
What are the basic shapes of viruses?
Polyhedral, Helical, Complex
What is a polyhedral?
A 20-sided protein
What is a helical?
A corkscrew or tube
What is a complex?
Polyhedrial head, helical tail
What are the steps in the life cycle of a virus?
1. Adsorption
2. Penetration
3. Uncoating
4. Viral Synthesis
5. Maturation
6. Release
Explain Adsorption in the Lifecycle of a Virus
Virion attaches to the outside of a cell.
Explain Penetration in the lifecycle of Virus.
Viral genome enters the cell and injects DNA
Explain Uncoating in the lifecycle of a Virus.
Virion removes capsid either before or after entering cell.
Explain Viral Synthesis in the lifecycle of a Virus.
Host cell is forced to produce all components (proteins, viral genome)
Explain Maturation in the lyfecycle of a Virus:
Viral components are assembled to form complete virions
Explain Release in the lifecycle of a Virus:
New virions leave the host cell and they usally kill the host cell.
What is a bacteriophage?
A virus that only attacks bacteria.
How do you count viruses?
1. mix bacteria culture with a viral sample.

2. spread mixture on an agar plate.

3. look for places where colony cant grow.

4. places where colony doesn't grow is a plaque.

5. 1 plaque represents 1 virus killing 1 cell.
Explain the characterisitcs of a viral growth curve:
1. unlike any cellular growth curve.

2. unlike any bacterial or animal growth curve.
What are the two periods of the Viral Growth Curve?
1. latent period (penetration, synthesis of components)

2. Burst period: (maturation and leaving the cell)
What are the 2 viral developmental path ways?
Lytic Pathway and Lysogenic pathway
Explain the lytic pathway
The virion attaches to the cell. The virion inserts DNA. The cell is forced to make the necessary materials. The materials assemple and leave the cell to infet more cells.
Explain the lysogenic pathway
The virion attaches to the cell, and once the DNA gets inside the cell it joins with the chromosome making a prophage. The bacteria cells reproduce normally making copies of the chromosomes. Each chromosome will have a part of that viral DNA. Then the prophage will exit the bacterial chromosome and start back at the lytic pathway, to get ready to assemble to make more virions
Animal viruses are similar to bacteria viruses.
hehe
Penetration of Animal Viruses:
Viral envelope fuses with cell membrane.

Endocytosis
Release of Animal Viruses:
Either burse or lyse the cell

"Budding" takes longer for host cell to die
What are the two types of Animal viruses?
Latent and Retroviruses.
Explain the characterisitcs of Latent Viruses:
1. look a lot like bacteria viruses

2. viral replication is arrest and the host (entire body) will function normally for years
How is Herpes Simplex reactivated?
1. fever
2. emotional stress
3. hormones
4. uv light
5. (lysogenic pathway)
Varicella is another latent virus, what is some information about it.
Virus will create 2 sets of symptoms. Onset of symptoms, then the virus will rest and come back with a completely different set of symptoms.
Wat are the two sets of Varicell - Zoster Virus?
1. Chicken Pox
Puss, Itchy
2. Shingles
flat, painful
What is a retrovirus?
1. A large group of RNA viruses
2. Some can cause malignant tumors
3. Some can cause leukemias in animals
What is an example of a retrovirus in humans?
HIV
What are the 3 types of Influenza?
A B and C
Explain Type A Influenza
1. Most common
2. Infects wide range of animals, humans
3. can cause pandemic
Explain Type B Influenza
1. Infects only humans
2. Find in 2 to 3 year cycles
3. Quite harmful, deadly
Explain Type C Influenz
1. infects only humans
2. Causes mild flu-like symptoms
What is a tumor virus?
Viruses that cause uncontrolled growth of new tissue
Example of a tumor virus?
Human Leukemia
-Burkett's lumphoma (epstein-barr)
-Hepatitis B-> Liver cancer
What are two simplier agents of disease?
Viroids and Prions
What is a Viroid?
A circular molecul of DNA that attacks plants.
What is a Prion?
A capsid of virus with nothing inside, made of proteins, that attacks the nervous system.
What is scrapie?
Affected sheep. Sheep would rub themselves up against a fence. The disease was a prion, went to the nervous system.
What is "Mad Cow"?
Cattle in England started having nerological symptoms from eating food with contaminated meat products. (A form of scrapie)
What is CJ?
Creutzfeld and Jakob, two scientists that studied the Cannibalism form of "Mad Cow".
What is Spongiform Encephalitis?
Inflammation of the Brain.
What are the three forms of Spongiform Encephalitis?
Creutzfeld-Jakob (CJ)
(Cannibalism form)

Transmissable Spongiform Encephalitis (TSE)
(genetic basis)

New Variant Creutzfeld Jakob
(comes from cows)
What do the 3 forms of Spongiform Encephalitis have in common?
1. They all have similar symptoms

2. The attack motor neurons

3. Muscle tremors, Behavioral differences, Dementia
How does incubation differ in the 3 forms of Spongiform Encephalitis?
1. Depends on transmission

2. Depends on victims genotype.
What are the characteristics of Creutzfeld-Jakob? (CJ)
1. Women and children got sick quicker and more of them died.

2. Women and children were forced to eat the remains of the human body. i.e. internal organs.

3. Men ate the musle and were less affected.
Why did the women and children get sick quicker than men with CJ?
The women and children ate the internal organs which had more prions. The men ate muscle that had less prions but up to 40 years after the tribes had been convinced to stop eating human bodies, the men started dying. The virus had an incubation of 40 years.
What are the characteristics of Transmissable Spongiform Encephalitis? (TSE)
1. It is a mutation in genes.

2. The bad gene just turns on.

3. It is not due to contaminated meat.
What are the characteristics of New Variant Creutzfeld Jakob (nvCJ)?
1. comes from bovines, cows.

2. Transmission is from consumption of contaminated beef, some medical procedures, and maybe even milk.

3. Incubation is about 5 years.
Will autoclaving kill prions?
Typical autoclaving will not kill prions. The autoclave must use bleach, with pressure, at a minimum of 1 hour to effectively kill all prions. (Prions can withstand 600 celsius)